الرئيسية / مهارات / القراءة / القطع مترجمة

القطع مترجمة

القطع مترجمة

هذه مجموعة من القطع تأتي أحياناً في اختبار الكفايات – ستيب

Content table

41 Passage Chocolate. 3

42جدول محتوياتPassage. 6

pizza Passage 43. 8

girl with Mom Passage 44. 11

Oud Passage 45. 14

salt Passage 46. 17

Passage No 47 مدائن صالح. 18

Helen Keller Passage 48. 21

Passageالنمل 49. 23

Passage 50الحمام 25

Passage Dates 31. 28

Reading table 32. 31

Passage animals endangered 33. 32

Passage Suez-Canal 34. 34

Passage blood types 35. 36

Passage Honey 36. 38

Passage poisonous 37. 42

Passage  Translating Quran 38. 44

Passage blue whale 39. 46

Passage  Airbags 40. 48

Passage octopus 21. 50

Passage Oil Field 22. 51

Passage noodles 23 –. 53

Passage personalities 24. 56

Passage muhammad-ali 25. 59

Passage thomas-edison 26. 61

Passage mountains 27. 64

Passage World War II 28. 67

Passage potato 29. 69

Passage Ibn Sina 30. 70

Passage planet Mars 11. 73

Passage Bermuda Triangle 12. 75

Passage dictionaries 13. 77

Passage Hawaii islands 14. 79

Passage Ibn Battuta 15. 81

Passage Blogger 16. 83

Passage animals sleep 17. 85

Passage hijaamah 18. 86

Passage King Faisal Prize 19. 88

Passage The miswak 20. 90

Passage1 حلم التفاحة. 92

Passage planets, and stars 2. 97

Passage control fire 3. 99

Passage Skiing 4. 100

Passage pollution 5. 101

Passage a philosopher 6. 102

Passage Ice cream 7. 104

Passage The wheel 8. 105

Passage Queen France 9. 106

Passage cars 10. 106

الام الكورية وبيتها 108

paper 114

41 Passage Chocolate

 Read the following passage, and then choose the best answer to each of the questions that follow and mark it on your answer sheet

  1. Chocolate –– there’s nothing quite like it, is there? Chocolate is simply delicious. What is chocolate? Where does it come from? Christopher Columbus was probably the first to take cacao beans from the New World to Europe in around 1502. But the history of chocolate goes back at least 4,000 years! The Aztecs, who lived in America, thought that their bitter cacao drink was a divine gift from heaven. In fact, the scientist Carolus Linnaeus named the plant Theobroma, which means “food of the gods.”

الشوكولاته لا يوجد شيء تماما مثلها، أليس كذلك؟ الشوكولاته هي ببساطة طعم لذيذ. ما هي الشوكولاته؟ ومن -أين تأتي؟ ربما كان كريستوفر كولومبوس، أول من أخذ حبوب الكاكاو من العالم الجديد إلى أوروبا في حوالي عام1812 . ولكن تاريخ الشوكولاته يعود إلى 4111 سنة على الأقل! يعتقد أن الأزتيك، الذين عاشوا في أمريكا، هم من شرب الكاكاو المر، حيث كانوا يعتبرونه هدية إلهية من السماء. وفي الواقع، كان العالم كارولوس لينيوس يسمي نبات الكاكاو، “ثيوبورما ” والتي تعني “طعام الآلهة “.

  1. The Spanish explorer Hernando Cortez went to America in 1519. He visited the Mexican emperor Montezuma. He saw that Montezuma drank cacao mixed with vanilla and spices. Cortez took some cacao home as a gift to the Spanish King Charles. In Spain, people began to drink Cortez’s chocolate in a drink with chili peppers. However, the natural taste of cacao was too bitter for most people. To sweeten the drink, Europeans added sugar to the cacao drink. As a sweet drink, it became more popular. By the 17th century, rich people in Europe were drinking it.

ذهب المستكشف الاسباني هيرناندو كورتيز إلى أمريكا في عام 1811 . وزار الإمبراطور المكسيكي مونتيزوما. ورأى أن مونتيزوما يشرب الكاكاو ويخلطه مع الفانيليا والتوابل. أخذ كورتيز بعض الكاكاو كهدية لملك أسبانيا تشارلز. وفي اسبانيا ،بدأ الناس بشرب الشوكولاته التي أحضرها كورتيز مع الفلفل الحار. ومع ذلك، كان الطعم الطبيعي من الكاكاو بالنسبة لمعظم الناس مر جد اً. ولتحلية المشروب، أضاف الأوروبييون السكر إلى شراب

الكاكاو. وكشراب حلو، أصبح أكثر شعبية. وبحلول القرن ال 11 ، أصبح الأغنياء في أوروبا يشربونه. 22

  1. In 1849, an English chocolate maker made the first chocolate bar. In the19th century, the Swiss started making milk chocolate by mixing powdered milk with sweetened chocolate. Milk chocolate has not changed much since this process was invented.

في عام 1541 ، قام صانع شوكولاتة إنجليزي بصنع أول أصبع شوكولاتة .وفي القرن ال 11 ، بدأت سويسرا بصنع شوكولاتة الحليب عن طريق خلط مسحوق الحليب مع الشوكولاته المحلاة. ولم تتغير صناعة شوكولاتة الحليب كثيرا منذ اختراع هذه العملية .

  1. Today, two countries – Brazil and Ivory Coast – produce almost half the world’s chocolate. The United States imports most of the chocolate in the world, but the Swiss eat the most chocolate per person. The most chocolate eaten today is sweet milk chocolate, but people also eat white chocolate and dark chocolate.

اليوم، هناك بلدان وهما البرازيل وساحل العاج تنتجان ما يقرب من نصف الشوكولاته في العالم. وتستورد – – الولايات المتحدة معظم الشوكولاته في العالم، لكن السويسريين هم أكثر الناس أكلا للشوكولاتة على مستوى الفرد الواحد.وتؤكل معظم الشوكولاته اليوم حلوة بالحليب، ولكن الناس أيضا يتناولون الشوكولاته البيضاء والشوكولاتة الداكنة .

  1. Cocoa and dark chocolate are believed to help prevent heart attacks, or help keep them from happening. They are supposed to be good for the circulatory system. Other health claims for chocolate have not been proven, but some research shows that chocolate could be good for the brain.

يُعتقد بأن الكاكاو والشوكولاته الداكنة تساعد في الوقاية من النوبات القلبية، أو تساعد على عدم حدوثها. ومن المفترض أن تكون الشكولاتة جيدة للدورة الدموية. ولم تثبت صحة الادعاءات الأخرى للشوكولاته، ولكن تُظهر بعض الأبحاث أن الشوكولاته يمكن أن تكون جيدة للدماغ .

  1. Chocolate is a popular holiday gift. A popular Valentine’s Day gift is a box of chocolate candies with a card and flowers. Chocolate is sometimes given for Christmas and birthdays. Chocolate eggs are sometimes given at Easter.

الشوكولاته هي هدية العيد المشهورة. وهدية عيد الحب المشهورة في علبة من الحلوى والشوكولاته مع البطاقة

والزهور. وتقدم الشوكولاته أحيانا في عيد الميلاد ) الكرسمس( وأعياد ميلاد الأشخاص. في بعض الأحيان، يتم

تقديم الشوكولاته بالبيض في عيد الفصح ) الإيستر( .

23

1-B 2-D 3-A 4-B 5-D 6-B

  1. Christopher Columbus was probably the first to take cacao beans from the New World to Europe …………
  2. early 15th century
  3. early 16th century
  4. 4,000 years ago
  5. early 14th century
  6. Christopher Columbus and the Spanish explorer Hernando Cortez lived…………
  7. in the same century
  8. different centuries
  9. in the 16th century
  10. (A+ C)
  11. Paragraph 2 is mainly taking about ……………..
  12. how Cortez took cacao from America to Europe
  13. how the Spanish King Charles loved cacao
  14. the natural taste of cacao which was too bitter
  15. how Europeans added sugar to the cacao drink to sweeten it
  16. We infer that before in 1849 ……………………..
  17. chocolate was eaten in a form of bars.
  18. there were no chocolate bars , but just drinks
  19. an English chocolate maker made the first chocolate bar
  20. Europeans didn’t like chocolate bars
  21. Which of the following statements is false?
  22. Brazil and Ivory Coast produce almost 50% of the world’s chocolate
  23. The United States imports most of the chocolate in the world
  24. The Swiss eat the most chocolate per person
  25. Brazil produces almost half of the world’s chocolate
  26. Paragraph 5 is mainly talking about…………….
  27. the disadvantages of eating chocolate
  28. the advantages of chocolate for heath
  29. how chocolate prevents heart attacks
  30. how chocolate can be good for the brain__

42جدول محتوياتPassage

1-D 2- D 3- B 4- C 5- D 6-A

Questions

  1. Which chapter in the book is the longest?
  2. Chapter 2
  3. Chapter 3
  4. Chapter 5
  5. Chapter 7
  6. Where can find the Index and Glossary in this book?
  7. After the Study Guide
  8. Before ” Current studies”
  9. In the 7th chapter
  10. At the end of the book
  11. Which chapter most likely includes information on Arabic language structure?
  12. Chapter 4
  13. Chapter 5
  14. Chapter 6
  15. Chapter 7
  16. Where would you expect to find examples contrasting two different languages, showing similarities and dissimilarities?
  17. Chapter 1
  18. Chapter 2
  19. Chapter 4
  20. Chapter 6
  21. In which chapter would you expect to find a discussion on meaning?
  22. Chapter 2
  23. Chapter 3
  24. Chapter 5
  25. Chapter 6
  26. What subject does this book deal with?
  27. General Linguistics
  28. Psycholinguistics
  29. Sociolinguistics
  30. Neurolinguistics

— — — — — — — — —

pizza Passage 43

  1. The modern pizza was originally invented in Naples/ Italy, but the word pizza is Greek in origin, derived from the Greek word pēktos meaning solid. The ancient Greeks covered their bread with oils, herbs and cheese. The first major innovation that led to flat bread pizza was the use of tomato as a topping. It was common for the poor of the area around Naples to add tomato to their flat bread, and so the pizza began.
  2. اخترع البيتزا الحديثة أصلا في نابولي / إيطاليا، ولكن كلمة البيتزا هي اليونانية في الأصل، والمستمدة من الكلمة اليونانية بوكتوس معنى الصلبة. وقد غطى الإغريق القدماء الخبز مع الزيوت والأعشاب والجبن. وكان أول ابتكارات رئيسية أدت إلى البيتزا الخبز شقة استخدام الطماطم باعتبارها تتصدر. كان من الشائع بالنسبة للفقراء في المنطقة المحيطة نابولي لإضافة الطماطم إلى الخبز شقة، وهكذا بدأت البيتزا
  1. Italian migration to the United States had accelerated during the 19th century, and pizza as a dish had been served since the early 20th century. Following the Italian Campaign of WWII, the discharged occupying American troops began to look for the flavors and dishes they’d experienced overseas and found the local Italian food styles that had emerged in the United States.
  2. وقد تسارعت الهجرة الإيطالية إلى الولايات المتحدة خلال القرن 19th، والبيتزا كطبق قد خدم منذ أوائل القرن 20th. في أعقاب الحملة الإيطالية للحرب العالمية الثانية، بدأت القوات الأمريكية المحتلة التي تم تفريغها للبحث عن النكهات والأطباق التي عانوا منها في الخارج، ووجدت أنماط الطعام الإيطالية المحلية التي ظهرت في الولايات المتحدة
  1. While it is difficult to say for sure who invented the pizza, it is however believed that modern pizza was first made by baker Raffaele Esposito of Naples. In fact, a popular urban legend holds that the archetypal pizza, Pizza Margherita, was invented in 1889, when the Royal Palace of Capodimonte commissioned the Neapolitan pizzaiolo Raffaele Esposito to create a pizza in honor of the visiting Queen Margherita. Of the three different pizzas he created, the Queen strongly preferred a pie wrapped in the colors of the Italian flag: red (tomato), green (basil), and white (mozzarella). Supposedly, this kind of pizza was then named after the Queen as Pizza Margherita.
  2. في حين أنه من الصعب أن نقول على وجه اليقين الذي اخترع البيتزا، ولكن يعتقد أن البيتزا الحديثة كان أول من خباز رافائيلي اسبوزيتو من نابولي. في الواقع، أسطورة حضرية شعبية تقول أن البيتزا النموذجية، بيتزا مارغريتا، اخترع في عام 1889، عندما كلف القصر الملكي في كابوديمونتي بيزيولو نابوليتو رافائيلي اسبوزيتو لخلق البيتزا تكريما للزيارة مارغريتا الملكة. من بين ثلاثة البيتزا المختلفة التي خلقها، فضلت الملكة بقوة فطيرة ملفوفة في ألوان العلم الإيطالي: الأحمر (الطماطم) والأخضر (الريحان)، والأبيض (موزاريلا). ومن المفترض أن هذا النوع من البيتزا كان اسمه بعد الملكة كما بيتزا مارغريتا.
  1. Later, the dish has become popular in many parts of the world:

 The first pizzeria, Antica Pizzeria Port’Alba, was opened in 1830 in Naples.

 In North America, The first pizzeria was opened in 1905 by Gennaro Lombardi at 53 1/3 Spring Street in New York City. The first Pizza Hut, the chain of pizza restaurants appeared in the United States during the 1930s.

  1. في وقت لاحق، أصبح الطبق شعبية في أجزاء كثيرة من العالم:
  • افتتح أول مطعم للبيتزا، أنتيكا بيتزاريا Port’Alba، في عام 1830 في نابولي.
  • في أمريكا الشمالية، تم افتتاح أول مطعم للبيتزا في عام 1905 من قبل جينارو لومباردي في 53 1/3 سبرينغ ستريت في مدينة نيويورك • ظهرت أول بيتزا هت، سلسلة مطاعم البيتزا في الولايات المتحدة خلال الثلاثينيات.
  1. Nowadays, many varieties of pizza exist worldwide, along with several dish variants based upon pizza. Pizza can be baked in an oven with stone bricks above the heat source, an electric deck oven, a conveyor belt oven or, in the case of more expensive restaurants, a wood- or coal-fired brick oven.
  2. في الوقت الحاضر، العديد من أصناف البيتزا موجودة في جميع أنحاء العالم، جنبا إلى جنب مع العديد من الصيغ طبق على أساس البيتزا. يمكن خبز البيتزا في فرن مع الطوب الحجري فوق مصدر الحرارة، فرن كهربائي سطح السفينة، فرن الحزام الناقل أو، في حالة المطاعم أكثر تكلفة، فرن من الخشب أو الفحم الذي يعمل بالفحم

 

1-A 2- B 3- D 4- A 5- C

Questions

  1. The modern pizza was invented………………..
  2. in Italy
  3. by Greek
  4. in the United States
  5. in the 21st century
  6. The main idea of Paragraph 2 is…………….
  7. Why Italians migrated to the United States
  8. How Pizza emerged in the United States
  9. the dischargeed occupying American troops
  10. Italian Campaign of WWII
  11. Why was a kind of Pizza named Margherita?
  12. Because it was made of red (tomato), green (basil), and white (mozzarella).
  13. Because it was wrapped in the colors of the Italian flag
  14. Because of the baker Raffaele Esposito of Naples
  15. after the name of Queen Margherita
  16. The first Pizza Hut in the United States appeared in the…………….century.
  17. 20th
  18. 19th
  19. 18th
  20. 21st
  21. Paragraph 5 is mainly talking about how pizza can be baked in…….
  22. an oven with stone bricks
  23. an electric deck oven
  24. different ways
  25. a wood- or coal-fired brick oven

girl with Mom Passage 44

  1. A little girl had been shopping with her Mom in Wal-Mart. She must have been 6- years-old, this beautiful red-haired, freckle-faced image of innocence. It was outside. The kind of rain that gushes over the top of rain gutters, so much in a hurry to hit the earth it has no time to flow down the spout. We all stood there under the awning and just inside the door of the Wal-Mart .
  2. كانت فتاة صغيرة تسوق مع أمها في وول مارت. وقالت إنها يجب أن يكون عمره 6 سنوات، وهذا جميل أحمر الشعر، صورة النمش الوجه من البراءة. كان يصب خارج. هذا النوع من المطر الذي يتدفق فوق الجزء العلوي من المزاريب المطر، والكثير في عجلة من امرنا لضرب الأرض ليس لديها الوقت لتدفق أسفل صنبور. نحن جميعا وقفت هناك تحت المظلة وفقط داخل باب وول مارت.
  1. We waited, some patiently, others irritated because nature messed up their hurried day. I am always mesmerized by rainfall. I got lost in the sound and sight of the heavens washing away the dirt and dust of the world. Memories of running, splashing so carefree as a child came pouring in as a welcome moment from the worries of my day .
  2. انتظرنا، بعض بصبر، والبعض الآخر غضب لأن الطبيعة خبطت يومهم سارع. أنا يفتن دائما هطول الأمطار. فقدت في صوت وبصر السماوات تزيل الأوساخ والغبار في العالم. ذكريات من تشغيل، الرش حتى الهم كما جاء طفل يصب في لحظة ترحيب من هموم بلدي اليوم
  1. The little voice was so sweet as it broke the hypnotic trance we were all caught in:

“Mom,let’s run through the rain,” she said .”What?” Mom asked .”Let’s run through the rain!” she repeated .”No, honey. We’ll wait until it slows down a bit,” Mom replied .This young child waited about another minute and repeated: “Mom, let’s run through the rain “.

“We’ll get soaked if we do,” Mom said . “No, we won’t, Mom. That’s not what you said this morning,” the young girl said as she tugged at her Mom’s arm .”This morning? When did I say we could run through the rain and not get wet”؟”Don’t you remember? When you were talking to Daddy about his cancer, you said, ‘If God can get us through this, he can get us through anything “!

3-كان صوت قليلا حلوة جدا كما انه كسر نشوة المنومة كنا جميعا اشتعلت في:

“أمي، دعونا تشغيل من خلال المطر”، وقالت: “ماذا؟” سألت أمي: “دعونا تشغيل من خلال المطر!” وقالت: “لا، العسل، سننتظر حتى يبطئ قليلا”، ردت أمي. انتظر هذا الطفل الصغير عن دقيقة أخرى وكرر: “أمي، دعونا تشغيل من خلال المطر”.

وقالت مام: “سنحصل على غارقة إذا فعلنا ذلك. “لا، لن نكون، أمي، هذا ليس ما قلته هذا الصباح”، قالت الفتاة الصغيرة وهي تقفز في ذراع أميها “هذا الصباح، متى قلت أننا يمكن أن يمر في المطر وليس الرطب” ؟ “لا تتذكرون؟ عندما كنت تتحدث إلى دادي عن سرطانه، قلت:” إذا كان الله يمكن أن يحصل لنا من خلال هذا، وقال انه يمكن الحصول علينا من خلال أي شيء “!

  1. The entire crowd stopped dead silent. I swear you couldn’t hear anything but the rain.

We all stood silently. No one came or left in the next few minutes. Mom paused and

thought for a moment about what she would say. Now some would laugh it off and

scold her for being silly. Some might even ignore what was said. But this was a

moment of affirmation in a young child’s life. A time when innocent trust can be

nurtured so that it will bloom into faith “Honey, you are absolutely right. Let’s run through the rain. If God let’s us get wet, well maybe we just needed washing,” Mom said.

Then off they ran. We all stood watching, smiling and laughing as they darted past the cars and, yes, through the puddles. They got soaked. But they were followed by a few who screamed and laughed like children all the way to their cars . And yes, I did. I ran. I got wet. I needed washing.

4 – توقف الحشد بأكمله عن الصمت الميت. أقسم لا يمكن أن تسمع أي شيء ولكن المطر.

لقد وقفنا جميعا بصمت. لم يأت أحد أو ترك في الدقائق القليلة القادمة. أمي متوقفة مؤقتا و

فكرت للحظة عن ما ستقوله. الآن بعض يضحك تشغيله و وبخ لها لكونها سخيفة. بل إن البعض قد يتجاهل ما قيل. ولكن هذا كان لحظة التأكيد في حياة الطفل الصغير. الوقت الذي يمكن أن يكون الثقة الأبرياء

ورعايتها حتى تتفتح في الإيمان “العسل، أنت على حق تماما، دعونا تشغيل من خلال المطر، وإذا كان الله دعونا دعونا الحصول على الرطب، حسنا ربما كنا بحاجة فقط الغسيل”، قالت أمي.

ثم ركضوا. نحن جميعا وقفوا يراقبون ويبتسمون ويضحكون وهم يهربون السيارات، نعم، من خلال البرك. أنها حصلت على غارقة. لكنهم تبعهم عدد قليل من صرخوا وضحكوا مثل الأطفال على طول الطريق إلى سياراتهم. ونعم، فعلت. ركضت. حصلت على الرطب. كنت بحاجة إلى الغسيل.

1-C 2- B 3- D 4- A 5- C

Questions

  1. Wal-Mart was probably the name of ……………
  2. the little girl
  3. the Mom
  4. a shopping center
  5. the writer
  6. “It was pouring outside” means……………..
  7. the people were watching rain
  8. there was heavy rain outside
  9. people stood there under the awning
  10. people were waiting outside
  11. Why did Mom prevent her little girl to play in the rain at the beginning? Because…….
  12. she was afraid cars might hit her
  13. it’s the nature of mothers to take care of their kids
  14. she was afraid that her girl would get soaked
  15. (B+C)
  16. The pronoun “they”in the last paragraph refers to…………..
  17. the mother and her little girl
  18. the crowd
  19. puddles
  20. cars
  21. After the mother and the little girl ran through the rain, …………. people followed them.
  22. many
  23. a lot of
  24. a small number of
  25. most shoppers

— — — — — — — — —

Oud Passage 45

  1. Oud (agarwood or agar) comes from trees found in India, Cambodia, Yemen, Thailand and Ethiopia. It is a certain fungal infection that comes from Aquileia trees, which is peeled off the tree. The chips are initially pale and light in color; the heartwood turns dense and dark as a result of the growth of a dangerous mold.
  2. العود (العود أو أجار) يأتي من الأشجار وجدت في الهند وكمبوديا واليمن وتايلاند وإثيوبيا. بل هو عدوى فطرية معينة تأتي من أشجار أكويليا، التي تقشر من الشجرة. رقائق في البداية شاحب وخفيفة في اللون. يتحول الخشب الصلب كثيفة ومظلمة نتيجة لنمو قالب خطير.

 

  1. Oud has a very strong and unique smell that is available in chips, which are lit and burned. The scented smoke is called Bakhoor. Oud is also available in an oil form, which is placed in small perfume bottles. People apply the oil on certain areas such as behind the ears and on the wrists for a long-lasting scented effect.
  2. العود لديه رائحة قوية جدا وفريدة من نوعها التي تتوفر في رقائق، والتي مضاءة وحرقت. ويسمى الدخان المعطر بخور. العود هو متاح أيضا في شكل النفط، والتي يتم وضعها في زجاجات العطور الصغيرة. الناس تطبيق النفط على مناطق معينة مثل وراء الأذنين وعلى المعصمين لتأثير طويل الأمد المعطرة.

 

  1. Bakhoor, the scented smoke, is made from placing the Oud chip on a bed of natural coal or lighted charcoal, which allows the wood to burn and puff the fragrance of the authentic Oud. Once the chip is burned out, it should be thrown away. Traditionally in Saudi Arabia, when Oud is lit, the Oud burner is passed around from one person to another as part of Saudi hospitality. An old odd fact about Bakhoor is that when a host is tired of his visitors and wants them to leave, he/she would burn a chip of Oud and walk around the room. Guests would then know that this is a polite signal for them to leave.
  2. باخور، الدخان المعطر، مصنوع من وضع شريحة العود على سرير من الفحم الطبيعي أو الفحم المضاء، والذي يسمح للخشب بالحرق و نفخة عطر العود الأصيل. مرة واحدة يتم حرق رقاقة خارج، ينبغي أن يلقى بعيدا. تقليديا في المملكة العربية السعودية، عندما يضيء العود، يتم نقل الموقد العود حول من شخص إلى آخر كجزء من الضيافة السعودية. حقيقة غريبة قديمة عن باخور هو أنه عندما تعبت مضيفة من زواره ويريد منهم المغادرة، وقال انه / انها سوف يحرق رقاقة من العود ويتجول في جميع أنحاء الغرفة. ثم يعرف الضيوف أن هذه إشارة مهذبة بالنسبة لهم للمغادرة.

 

  1. Oud in its oil form (dehan) is a considerable investment. It is sold and measured in 12-milliliter bottles called tola. Prices for one tola range anywhere from SR300 to SR8,000. Anything below this price might be a copy or a Chinese imitation.

 

  1. العود في شكله النفطي (ديهان) هو استثمار كبير. يباع ويقاس في 12 ملليلتر زجاجات تولا تولا. أسعار مجموعة تولا في أي مكان من 300 إلى 8000 ريال. أي شيء أقل من هذا السعر قد يكون نسخة أو التقليد الصيني.

 

  1. Imam Bukhari reported that Oud is known to be an excellent scent for strengthening the body and the mind. According to him, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Treat with Indian incense (Oud Al-Hindi) for it has healing for seven diseases; it is to be sniffed by one having throat problems and put in the mouth for one suffering from pleurisy.” Oud is also used to traditionally treat asthma, chest congestion, colic, nausea, kidney problems, thyroid cancer, lung tumors, and post childbirth. It is also a general refresher in China, India and Japan.
  2. وقال الإمام البخاري أن العود هو معروف رائحة ممتازة لتعزيز الجسم والعقل. فقال له النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: “تعامل مع البخور الهندي (عود الهندي) لأنه شفاء سبعة أمراض، يجب أن يتم استنشاقه من قبل شخص لديه مشاكل في الحلق ووضع في الفم لمعاناة واحدة من الجنب “. كما يستخدم العود لعلاج الربو التقليدي، واحتقان الصدر، والمغص، والغثيان، ومشاكل في الكلى، وسرطان الغدة الدرقية، وأورام الرئة، وبعد الولادة . وهو أيضا تجديد عام في الصين والهند واليابان.

 

  1. International perfume brands such as Tom Ford, Armani, Dior, Kilian and more are now embracing Oud for its distinctive long-lasting scent and are including it in their luxurious perfume mixtures. Popular brand stores in Saudi Arabia that are famous for selling high quality Oud are: Arabian Oud, Ajmal and Abdul Samad Alqurashi.
  2. العلامات التجارية العطور الدولية مثل توم فورد، أرماني، ديور، كيليان وأكثر تحتضن الآن العود لرائحة مميزة طويلة الأمد، والتي تشمل ذلك في خلطات العطور الفاخرة. متاجر العلامة التجارية الشهيرة في المملكة العربية السعودية التي تشتهر بيع العود عالية الجودة هي: العود العربي، أجمل وعبد الصمد القرشي.

 

1-A 2-C- 3- D 4- B 5- A

Questions

1.The 2nd paragraph is mainly talking about………………..

  1. a. two forms of Oud
  2. Bakhoor in a form of scented smoke
  3. Oud in an oil form
  4. small perfume bottles
  5. If the host is tired of his visitors and wants them to leave, he………………….
  6. applies Oud oil behind their ears
  7. applies Oud oil on their wrists
  8. burns a chip of Oud and walk around the room
  9. gives each a tola of Oud oil
  10. In Paragraph 4, the word “tola” probably means…………..
  11. investment
  12. dehan
  13. Chinese imitation
  14. a very small bottle
  15. Paragraph 5 is mainly talking about……………………
  16. what Imam Bukhari reported about Oud
  17. how Oud can be used to treat different diseases
  18. how Oud is used as a refresher in China, India and Japan
  19. how Oud can treat asthma, chest congestion and colic.

www.dalilk4step.com 12

  1. The pronoun “their” in the last paragraph refers to…………………..
  2. International perfume brands
  3. perfume mixtures
  4. popular brand stores
  5. Arabian Oud, Ajmal and Abdul Samad Alqurashi

— — — — — — — — —

salt Passage 46

According to a 077-year-old legend, a princess called the Blessed Kinga threw her ring

into a salt mine at Marmaros in Hungary. While traveling from Marmaros to Cracow,

she stopped at Weiliczka and her servants were told to dig a well. Instead of water, salt

was discovered – and in the first lump of salt, which was taken out, Kinga’s ring was

found.

ووفقا لأسطورة تبلغ من العمر 077 عاما، ألقت أميرة تسمى المباركة كينجا حلقة لها إلى منجم ملحي في مرمروس في هنغاريا. أثناء السفر من مارماروس إلى كراكوف، توقفت في ويليتشكا وقيل لخدمها لحفر بئر. بدلا من الماء والملح

تم اكتشافه – وفي الكتلة الأولى من الملح، والتي تم إخراجها، كانت حلقة كينغا وجدت

The legend is a story- but it is true that for over seven centuries, salt has been mined

from the rock below the town of Weiliczka. After that date, horses were used to carry

salt out, but the work was still very dangerous and many miners were killed or injured.

The constant danger made the miners deeply religious and chapels were constructed

underground where church services were held. After a chapel was destroyed by fire in

1960, miners were not allowed to take wooden statues into the mine, so they began to

carve sculpture from rock salt.

أسطورة قصة- ولكن صحيح أنه منذ أكثر من سبعة قرون، تم استخراج الملح من الصخرة تحت بلدة ويليتشكا. بعد ذلك التاريخ، كانت تستخدم الخيول لحملها ولكن العمل كان لا يزال خطرا جدا، وقتل العديد من عمال المناجم أو جرحوا.

وأدى الخطر المستمر إلى تشييد عمال المناجم الدينية والمعابد تحت الأرض حيث عقدت خدمات الكنيسة. بعد أن دمرت كنيسة صغيرة بالنار في عام 1960، لم يسمح لعمال المناجم بأخذ التماثيل الخشبية في المنجم، لذلك بدأوا في نحت النحت من الملح الصخري.

Nowadays visitors are shown how salt was mined long ago, and can see the enormous

which have been dug out of the solid rock. They can also see pretty green

Lakes, and chapels with beautiful carvings. A special attraction is the Chapel of the

Blessed Kinga, which was made by the miners themselves in a chamber 177 meters

underground.

ويظهر الزوار في الوقت الحاضر كيف تم استخراج الملح منذ فترة طويلة، ويمكن أن نرى الغرف الهائلة التي تم حفرها من الصخور الصلبة. ويمكنهم أيضا رؤية البحيرات الخضراء الجميلة، والمصليات ذات المنحوتات الجميلة. وهناك جاذبية خاصة هي كنيسة كينغا المباركة، التي أدلى بها عمال المناجم أنفسهم في غرفة 177 متر تحت الأرض….

1-A 2- B 3- D 4- D 5- B

Questions

  1. The servants were asked to dig a well to……………….
  2. find water
  3. discover salt
  4. take out Kinga’s ring
  5. find a lump of salt
  6. The underlined word “ legend” in paragraph 2 probably means………….
  7. a mine
  8. a story
  9. a lump
  10. salt
  11. Miners began to carve sculptures from rock salt because……………………..
  12. rock salt sculptures don’t catch fire
  13. wooden statues catch fire
  14. a chapel was destroyed by fire
  15. All of the above
  16. The underline pronoun “ They” in paragraph 3 refers to………….
  17. Nowadays
  18. chambers
  19. lakes
  20. visitors
  21. The best title for the passage could be………………
  22. Blessed Kinga’s Ring
  23. The Story of Salt Discovery
  24. Chapels Underground
  25. Rock Salt Sculptures

Passage No 47 مدائن صالح

.

  1. In 2008 UNESCO announced Madaʼin Saleh as a site of cultural heritage, becoming Saudi Arabia’s first World Heritage Site. It was chosen for its well-preserved remains from late antiquity, especially the 131 rock-cut huge tombs of the Nabatean kingdom.

في عام 2008 أعلنت منظمة اليونسكو مدائن صالح كموقع للتراث الثقافي، ليصبح أول موقع للتراث العالمي في

المملكة العربية السعودية. تم اختياره للآثار المحفوظة جيدا من أواخر العصور القديمة، وخاصة 131 قبر ضخم

محفورة في الصخر لمملكة الأنباط.

  1. The archaeological site of Mada’in Saleh (Al-Hijr) is situated 20 km north of the town of Al-`Ula, (previously known as Dedan), 400 km north-west of Medina, and 500 km south-east of Petra, Jordan. The western and north-western portions of the site contain a water table that can be reached at a depth of 20 m.

يقع الموقع الأثري مدائن صالح )أو ما يسمى الحجر( على بعد 80 كيلومترا إلى الشمال من مدينة العلا،

)المعروف سابقا باسم ديدان(، على بعد 000 كيلومتر إلى الشمال الغربي من المدينة المنورة، وعلى بعد 000 كم

إلى الجنوب الشرقي من البتراء والأردن. وتحتوي الأجزاء الغربية والشمالية الغربية للموقع على المياه الجوفية

التي يمكن الوصول إليها على عمق 80 مترا .

  1. It is the largest conserved site of the civilization of the Nabataeans south of Petra in Jordan. It features well-preserved monumental tombs with decorated facades dating from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD. The site also features some 50 inscriptions of the pre-Nabataean period and some cave drawings. Mada’in Saleh bears a unique testimony to Nabataean civilization. With its 111 monumental tombs,

94 of which are decorated, and water wells, the site is an outstanding example of the Nabataeans’ architectural accomplishment and hydraulic expertise.

تعتبر مدائن صالح من أكبر المواقع التي حفظت حضارة الأنباط، حيث تقع جنوب مدينة البتراء في الأردن.

وتضم قبور ضخمة محفوظة جيدا مع واجهات مزينة، يعود تاريخها إلى القرن الأول قبل الميلاد وحتى القرن

الأول بعد الميلاد )أي 800 سنة(. ويحتوي الموقع أيضا على نحو 00 من النقوش من فترة ما قبل مملكة الأنباط

وبعض رسومات الكهوف. وتعتبرمدائن صالح فريدة للحضارة النبطية. ومن 111 قبر أثري، 40 منها مزينة،

وفيها آبار مياه، والموقع مثال بارز للإنجاز المعماري النبطي والخبرات الهيدروليكية .

  1. 4. Prophet Saleh was sent to the Thamud. The Holy Quran says, “The Thamud rejected the Messengers. When their brother Saleh said to them: Will you not be righteous! I am sent to you as a trusty Messenger.”

وقد أرسل الله النبي صالح إلى ثمود. يقول القرآن الكريم: “بأن ثمود رفضت المرسلين. عندما قال لهم أخوهم

صالح: “وإلى ثمود أخاهم صالحاً، قال يا قوم اعبدوا الله ما لكم من إله غيره…..” الآية 11 من سورة هود

  1. Although Madain Saleh site was proclaimed as an archaeological treasure in the early 1970s, few investigations had been conducted since. The prohibition on the veneration of objects/artifacts has only resulted in minimal low-key archaeological activities. These conservative measures have started to ease up beginning in 2000, when Saudi Arabia invited expeditions to carry out archaeological explorations, as part of the government’s push to promote cultural heritage protection and tourism.

7

على الرغم من أنه أعلن عن موقع مدائن صالح أنه بمثابة كنز أثري في بداية السبعينات من القرن العشرين

1490 / فقد أجريت عدة دراسات منذ ذلك الحين. وقد أدى الحظر المفروض على تقديس الأشياء /والقطع الأثرية

، إلى انخفاض في الأنشطة الأثرية إلى الحد الأدنى. وقد بدأت هذه التدابير المحافظة تخف منذ بداية عام 8000

عندما دعت المملكة العربية السعودية البعثات للقيام بالاستكشافات الأثرية، كجزء من مساعي الحكومة لتعزيز

حماية التراث الثقافي والسياحة.

1-B 2- A 3- C 4- D 5- A

  1. The first paragraph is mainly talking about………………..
  2. UNESCO
  3. why UNESCO announced Madaʼin Saleh as a site of cultural heritage
  4. the 131 rock-cut huge tombs
  5. the Nabatean kingdom
  6. The 2nd paragraph is mainly talking about the………………….
  7. the location of Mada’in Saleh
  8. the importance of the town of Al-`Ula
  9. Petra, Jordan
  10. the location of Madina
  11. In Paragraph 3, we infer that the preserved monumental tombs with decorated facades were……………..old.
  12. 100 years
  13. 300 years
  14. 200 years
  15. one century
  16. Mada’in Saleh……………………
  17. was called after Prophet Saleh
  18. was also called Al-Hijr
  19. is 400 km south-east of Petra, Jordan

d.( A+B)

  1. Minimal low-key archaeological activities and few investigations had been conducted in Mada’in Saleh because………
  2. of the prohibition on the veneration of objects in Saudi Arabia
  3. Saudi Arabia invited expeditions to carry out archaeological explorations
  4. the site was proclaimed as an archaeological treasure in the early 1970s
  5. of the government’s push to promote cultural heritage protection and tourism

Helen Keller Passage 48

  1. Helen Keller was born in Alabama in 1881. Before she was two years old, she became seriously ill and was left deaf and blind. Helen could only learn about things around her by touching with her hands. She made up signs for a few things like yes, no, come, and go. She felt lonely because she could not hear, see, or speak. She became angry a lot. Her parents decided that she needed someone who could help her understand the world around her and how to behave in it.
  2. ولدت هيلين كيلر في ولاية ألاباما في 1881. قبل أن تبلغ من العمر عامين، أصبحت مريضة على نحو خطير وترك الصم والمكفوفين. هلين يمكن أن تتعلم فقط عن الأشياء من حولها عن طريق لمس بيديها. انها تشكل علامات لبضعة أمور مثل نعم، لا، تأتي، وتذهب. شعرت بالوحدة لأنها لم تستطع سماع أو رؤية أو التحدث. أصبحت غاضبة كثيرا. قررت والديها أنها بحاجة إلى شخص يمكن أن يساعدها على فهم العالم من حولها وكيفية التصرف فيها.
  1. So, Anne Sullivan came to teach her. She taught Helen by using her hands to spell words. She would use sign language by signing a letter with her own hand, and pressing her hand into the palm of Helen’s hand. Helen soon learned to make the same signs with her hands, but did not really understand what they meant.
  1. لذلك، جاءت آن سوليفان لتعليمها. تدرس هيلين باستخدام يديها لتهجئة الكلمات. وقالت إنها سوف تستخدم لغة الإشارة عن طريق توقيع بريد إلكتروني بيدها، والضغط على يدها في راحة يد هيلين. هيلين سرعان ما تعلمت أن تجعل نفس العلامات مع يديها، ولكن لم يفهم حقا ما يعنيه.
  1. One day Ms Sullivan put Helen’s hand under the water pump and spelled the word water in Helen’s other hand. Finally, Helen understood that these signs, called finger spelling, were naming the things in her world. It was as if a light had suddenly been turned on. She was so excited that she wanted to know the names of everything.
  2. يوم واحد وضعت السيدة سوليفان يد هيلين تحت مضخة المياه وكتب كلمة المياه في يد هيلين الأخرى. وأخيرا، فهمت هيلين أن هذه العلامات، وتسمى الإملاء الاصبع، كانت تسمية الأشياء في عالمها. كان كما لو كان الضوء قد تحولت فجأة. كانت متحمسة جدا لأنها تريد أن تعرف أسماء كل شيء.
  1. Ms Sullivan was a gifted teacher and worked hard to help Helen learn. After she taught Helen the names of everything, she had to teach her the things that any other child learns in school, like history, science and math. She also taught Helen how to read Braille, groups of raised dots that stand for letters.

4 – وكانت السيدة سوليفان معلمة موهبة وعملت بجد لمساعدة هيلين على التعلم. بعد أن علمت هيلين أسماء كل شيء، كان عليها أن تعلمها الأشياء التي يتعلمها أي طفل آخر في المدرسة، مثل التاريخ والعلوم والرياضيات. كما درست هيلين كيف تقرأ بلغة برايل، مجموعات من النقاط المطروحة التي تقف على الحروف.

  1. When Helen got older, she went to the Perkins School for the Blind. Then she went to Radcliffe College. She was the first blind and deaf person to ever graduate from college. As a grown-up, Helen was a public figure and a writer. She used sign language to tell people about her life. She also wrote a book about her life. Ms Sullivan was there with her, every step of the way. They remained companions for 49 years, until Ms Sullivan died in 1936. Helen Keller died in 1968.
  2. عندما حصلت هيلين على السن، ذهبت إلى مدرسة بيركنز للمكفوفين. ثم ذهبت إلى كلية رادكليف. كانت أول شخص عمياء وصم يتخرج من الكلية. وكبير، كانت هيلين شخصية عامة وكاتبة. استخدمت لغة الإشارة لإخبار الناس عن حياتها. كما كتبت كتابا عن حياتها. كانت السيدة سوليفان هناك معها، في كل خطوة على الطريق. ظلوا الصحابة لمدة 49 عاما، حتى توفيت السيدة سوليفان في عام 1936. توفيت هيلين كيلر في عام 1968

1-B 2- C 3- A 4- D 5- B

Questions

  1. Helen Keller was born in the………………….century.
  2. 18th
  3. 19th
  4. 20th
  5. 17th
  6. According to paragraph 1, Helen …………….
  7. couldn’t hear , but she could see
  8. could speak, but couldn’t hear or see
  9. could neither hear nor see, nor speak
  10. was only deaf
  11. The main idea of paragraph 4 is……………….
  12. How Helen could spell words and learn names of things
  13. How Sullivan used sign language to teach Helen
  14. How water pump was important
  15. Why Helen felt lonely
  16. Braille is probably…………………………
  17. a reading system for the blind
  18. groups of raised dots that stand for letters
  19. the name of Helen’s teacher
  20. (a+b)
  21. How old was Helen Keller when she died?
  22. 68 years
  23. 88 years
  24. 49 years
  25. 36 years

Passageالنمل 49

  1. Do you know that there are about 8000 species of ants? They are found worldwide but are especially common in hot climates. They live in organized groups called colonies. It is because of this that ants, like their relatives, the bees and wasps, are said to be social insects.
  2. هل تعرف أن هناك حوالي 8000 نوع من النمل؟ وهي موجودة في جميع أنحاء العالم ولكنها شائعة بشكل خاص في المناخات الحارة. وهم يعيشون في مجموعات منظمة تسمى المستعمرات. وبسبب هذا، يقال إن النمل، مثل أقاربه، النحل والدبابير، من الحشرات الاجتماعية
  1. When we think of intelligent members of the animal kingdom, the creatures that spring immediately to mind are monkeys. But in fact the social lives of some members of the insect kingdom are sufficiently complex to suggest more than a hint of intelligence. Among these, the world of the ant has come in for considerable scrutiny lately, and the idea that ants demonstrate sparks of cognition has certainly not been rejected by those involved in these investigations.
  2. عندما نفكر في أعضاء ذكي من المملكة الحيوانية، والمخلوقات التي تنبع على الفور إلى الذهن هي القرود. ولكن في الواقع الحياة الاجتماعية لبعض أعضاء مملكة الحشرات معقدة بما فيه الكفاية لاقتراح أكثر من مجرد تلميح من الذكاء. من بين هذه، عالم النملة قد حان لفحص كبير في الآونة الأخيرة، وفكرة أن النمل تثبت الشرر من الإدراك وبالتأكيد لم يرفض من قبل المشاركين في هذه التحقيقات.
  3. Ants communicate with each other using pheromones, sounds, and touch. The use of pheromones as chemical signals is more developed in ants. Like other insects, ants perceive smells with their long, thin, and mobile antennae. The paired antennae provide information about the direction and intensity of scents.
  4. النمل التواصل مع بعضها البعض باستخدام الفيرومونات، والأصوات، واللمس. استخدام الفيرومونات كما إشارات كيميائية هو أكثر تطورا في النمل. مثل الحشرات الأخرى، ينظر النمل رائحة مع هوائيات طويلة، رقيقة، والمتنقلة. وتوفر الهوائيات المقترنة معلومات عن اتجاه وشدة الروائح.
  1. All ants share common characteristics. The body of an ant is divided into three parts : a large head, a thorax and an oval abdomen. The thorax is separate from the abdomen by a slender waist. An ant uses its three pairs of jointed legs to move about. Ants are usually yellow, brown, red or black in color.
  1. جميع النمل حصة الخصائص المشتركة. وينقسم الجسم من النمل إلى ثلاثة أجزاء: رئيس كبير، والصدر والبطن البيضاوي. الصدر منفصل عن البطن بخصر نحيل. يستخدم النمل ثلاثة أزواج من الساقين المشتركة للتحرك. النمل عادة ما تكون أصفر، بني، أحمر أو أسود في اللون.
  2. Ants hatch from eggs as legless larvae. The queen is the only female in the colony which can lay eggs. The other females are worker ants which build the nest, collect food and tend to the larvae. The large females, known as soldier ants, defend the colony. The function of the male ant is to mate with the queen. Only the queen and male ants have wings which are used during the mating ritual. Soon after mating, the male ant dies. The fertilized queen pulls off her wings and leaves to establish a new colony.
  3. النمل يفقس من البيض واليرقات لا يرق. الملكة هي الأنثى الوحيدة في المستعمرة التي يمكن أن تضع البيض. الإناث الأخرى هي النمل العامل الذي بناء العش، وجمع المواد الغذائية وتميل إلى اليرقات. الإناث الكبيرة، والمعروفة باسم النمل الجندي، والدفاع عن المستعمرة. وظيفة النمل الذكور هو لزميله مع الملكة. فقط النمل الملكة والذكور لها أجنحة التي تستخدم خلال طقوس التزاوج. بعد فترة وجيزة من التزاوج، يموت النمل الذكور. الملكة المخصبة تسحب أجنحةها وتترك لإقامة مستعمرة جديدة.
  1. Ant colonies live in nests consisting of numerous chambers connected by tunnels. Some ants colonize tree trunks or live in mounds built of sticks and leaves. Some others secrete silk to sew together nests of leaves. They are also found under rocks or live underground.
  2. تعيش مستعمرات النمل في أعشاش تتكون من غرف عديدة متصلة بالأنفاق. بعض النمل يستعمر جذوع الأشجار أو يعيش في أكوام بنيت من العصي والأوراق. البعض الآخر تفرز الحرير لخياطة معا أعشاش الأوراق. كما أنها توجد تحت الصخور أو تحت الأرض الحية.

 

1-A 2- B 3- D 4-C 5-A

 

Questions

  1. The underlined word ” species” in paragraph 1 probably means:
  2. kinds
  3. relatives
  4. ants
  5. wasps
  6. In paragraph 2, the writer hints that…………….
  7. Monkeys are the most intelligent animals
  8. Ants could be more intelligent than monkeys
  9. Ants are as intelligent as monkeys
  10. Monkeys are more intelligent that human beings
  11. Paragraph 3 is mainly talking about…….
  12. the sounds of ants
  13. the pheromones as chemical signals
  14. how ants perceive smells with their long, thin, and mobile antennae
  15. how ants communicate
  16. How many legs does the ant have
  17. 8
  18. 10
  19. 6
  20. 4
  21. Paragraph 5 is mainly talking about……………..
  22. ant social classes and the function of each class
  23. how ants hatch from eggs
  24. the function of the male ant
  25. the queen ant

Passage 50الحمام

  1. The common names pigeon and dove are often used interchangeably. However, “dove” tends to be used for smaller species and “pigeon” for larger ones. There are more than 300 species in the family. They usually make nests of sticks, and their two white eggs are incubated by both the male and the female parent. Doves feed on seeds, fruit and plants.

. 1وغالبا ما تستخدم حمامة الأسماء الشائعة والحمامة بالتبادل. ومع ذلك، “حمامة” يميل إلى أن تستخدم للأنواع الصغيرة و “حمامة” لأكبر. هناك أكثر من 300 نوع في الأسرة. وعادة ما تصنع أعشاش من العصي، ويتم حضان البيض الأبيض من قبل كل من الذكور والإناث الأم. الحمائم تتغذى على البذور والفاكهة والنباتات

  1. Unlike most other birds, the doves and pigeons produce a type of milk. It is produced in their crop, and called crop milk. Both male and female have this highly nutritious milk to feed their young.
  2. خلافا لمعظم الطيور الأخرى، الحمائم والحمام تنتج نوع من الحليب. يتم إنتاجها في محصولها، ودعا حليب المحاصيل. كل من الذكور والإناث لديهم هذا الحليب مغذية للغاية لإطعام صغارهم
  1. Pigeons and doves are distributed everywhere on Earth, except for the driest areas of the Sahara Desert, Antarctica and the high Arctic. They have colonized most of the world’s oceanic islands. The family has adapted to most of the habitats available on the planet.
  1. الحمام والحمائم موزعة في كل مكان على الأرض، باستثناء المناطق الأكثر جفافا في الصحراء الكبرى، القارة القطبية الجنوبية وارتفاع القطب الشمالي. لقد استعمروا معظم الجزر المحيطية في العالم. وقد تكيفت الأسرة مع معظم الموائل المتاحة على هذا الكوكب
  1. The largest range of any species is that of the rock dove. This species lives in Britain and Ireland, northern Africa, across Europe, Arabia, Central Asia, India, the Himalayas and up into China and Mongolia. The range of the species increased dramatically after it was domesticated, because the species went feral in cities around the world. It lives in cities across most of North America, South America, sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.
  2. أكبر مجموعة من أي نوع هو أن من حمامة الصخور. هذا النوع يعيش في بريطانيا وأيرلندا وشمال أفريقيا، عبر أوروبا، العربية، آسيا الوسطى، الهند، جبال الهيمالايا وحتى الصين ومنغوليا. وازدادت هذه الأنواع بشكل كبير بعد استنبتها، لأن الأنواع كانت متوترة في المدن حول العالم. وهي تعيش في المدن في معظم أنحاء أمريكا الشمالية وأمريكا الجنوبية وأفريقيا جنوب الصحراء الكبرى وجنوب شرق آسيا واليابان وأستراليا ونيوزيلندا
  1. The Christian symbol of a dove with an olive branch in its beak represents peace. The Christian stories came after very similar myths from earlier cultures.
  2. الرمز المسيحي للحمامة مع فرع الزيتون في منقارها يمثل السلام. جاءت القصص المسيحية بعد أساطير مشابهة جدا من الثقافات السابقة.
  1. Several species of pigeons and doves are used as food, and probably any might be. The powerful breast muscles of the family make excellent meat. Domesticated or hunted pigeon were used as food in Ancient Rome. It is familiar meat within Arab and French cuisines. It is also eaten in Asian cuisines, such as Chinese and Indonesian cuisine. Young pigeons in cuisine are known as “squabs”.
  2. يتم استخدام عدة أنواع من الحمام والحمائم كغذاء، وربما أي شيء قد يكون. عضلات الثدي القوية للأسرة تجعل اللحوم ممتازة. واستخدمت حمامة المستوطنة أو الصيد كغذاء في روما القديمة. وهو لحم مألوف في المطبخ العربي والفرنسي. كما يتم تناوله في المأكولات الآسيوية، مثل المأكولات الصينية والإندونيسية. الحمام الشاب في المطبخ المعروف باسم “سكوابس”.
  1. People have used pigeons to carry messages to one another for hundreds of years. In the 12th century, the royal palaces of Iraq and Syria included pigeon houses so the kings could be kept informed of their generals’ victories and defeats on the battlefield. In fact, pigeons were a common way to send messages right up through World War II.
  2. 7. وقد استخدم الناس الحمام لنقل الرسائل إلى بعضها البعض لمئات السنين. في القرن الثاني عشر، احتوت القصور الملكية في العراق وسوريا على بيوت حمامة حتى يمكن إبقاء الملوك على علم بانتصارات جنرالاتهم وهزائمهم في ساحة المعركة. في الواقع، كان الحمام وسيلة شائعة لإرسال الرسائل حتى من خلال الحرب العالمية

1-A 2-C 3-B 4-D 5-A 6-B

 

Questions

  1. The underlined word species in Paragraph 1 probably means……
  2. Types

b . Pigeons

  1. Families
  2. Names
  3. The main idea of paragraph 2 is………….
  4. Young pigeons love milk
  5. Pigeon milk is nutritious
  6. It is strange that the doves and pigeons produce crop milk.
  7. Male and female pigeons feed their young
  8. Pigeons and doves cannot be found in………………
  9. Britain and Ireland
  10. Sahara Desert and Antarctica
  11. Arabia and Central Asia
  12. China and Mongolia.
  13. Paragraph 5 is mainly taking about………………
  14. Olive branch as a symbol of peace
  15. Christian stories about doves
  16. myths from earlier cultures
  17. How a dove with an olive branch in its beak symbolizes peace.
  18. The main idea of paragraph 6 is…………………
  19. How pigeons and doves are used as food in different cultures
  20. Why young pigeons in cuisine are known as “squabs”
  21. Pigeons are familiar meat within Arab and French cuisines
  22. The powerful breast muscles of the family make excellent meat
  23. If you had lived in the 12 century as a King in Iraq, you would have probably used pigeons……………
  24. as part of your food
  25. to carry messages in war
  26. to fight in battlefield
  27. to keep them in your palace

Passage Dates 31

 

1- Dates, one of the oldest cultivated crops, grow on a date palm tree. Dates grow in large bunches atop the palm trees, which thrive in hot climates. The fruits range in size from 1 to 3 inches and range in color from pale yellow to a dark red-brown. Dates harvested at the yellow stage require further ripening before they can be properly preserved. Fully ripe, dark-colored dates are ready for preservation as soon as they are harvested.

1- التمور، واحدة من أقدم المحاصيل المزروعة، تنمو على شجرة نخيل التمر. تنمو التواريخ في باقات كبيرة فوق أشجار النخيل، التي تزدهر في المناخات الحارة. يتراوح حجم الثمار من 1 إلى 3 بوصات ويتراوح لونها من الأصفر الشاحب إلى اللون الأحمر الداكن الداكن. تتطلب التواريخ التي تحصد في المرحلة الصفراء مزيدا من النضج قبل أن يتم الحفاظ عليها بشكل صحيح. التواريخ الناضجة تماما، الملونة الداكنة جاهزة للحفظ حالما يتم حصادها

2- To describe the advantages of dates in a few words, it is good to quote them as an essential part of one’s diet, so that it can be considered as a balanced diet. Dates are composed of various fats, sugar, vitamins, and minerals, which our body requires. Arabs, for example, eat dates along with milk—making it more beneficial. However, a few of its advantages are described below.

  1. لوصف مزايا التمور في بضع كلمات، فمن الجيد أن أقتبس منها باعتبارها جزءا أساسيا من النظام الغذائي واحد، بحيث يمكن اعتباره نظام غذائي متوازن. وتتكون التواريخ من مختلف الدهون والسكر والفيتامينات والمعادن، والتي يتطلبها جسمنا. العرب، على سبيل المثال، يأكلون التواريخ جنبا إلى جنب مع الحليب، مما يجعلها أكثر فائدة. ومع ذلك، فإن بعض مزاياها موضحة أدناه

3- Although dates are rich in providing strength to everybody, but during the last months of pregnancy the advantages are doubled—dates strengthen muscles of the uterus. Dates also strengthen a weak heart

3- على الرغم من أن التواريخ غنية في توفير القوة للجميع، ولكن خلال الأشهر الأخيرة من الحمل ومضاعفة مضاعفات التواريخ تقوية عضلات الرحم. كما تعزز التواريخ ضعف القلب

4 – Dates are rich in fibers and one can easily digest them. Researchers showed that dates can also be helpful in curing certain abdominal diseases including abdominal cancer. Normally, it is observed that one may feel hungry if sugar levels are reduced in the body irrespective of the condition of the stomach. dates can well serve the purpose, because these provide energy. some other advantages of eating dates include treating constipation, prevention against night blindness and improving health of eyes.

4 – التمور غنية بالألياف ويمكن للمرء أن يهضمها بسهولة. وأظهر الباحثون أن التواريخ يمكن أن تكون مفيدة أيضا في علاج بعض أمراض البطن بما في ذلك سرطان البطن. عادة، لوحظ أن المرء قد يشعر بالجوع إذا انخفضت مستويات السكر في الجسم بغض النظر عن حالة المعدة. التواريخ يمكن أن تخدم الغرض، لأن هذه توفر الطاقة. بعض المزايا الأخرى من تناول التواريخ تشمل علاج الإمساك، والوقاية من العمى الليلي وتحسين صحة العينين.

           

1-A 2-B 3-B 4-A

Questions

  1. The underlined word “thrive’ in Paragraph 1 probably means:
  2. grow
  3. die
  4. harvest
  5. ripen
  6. Yellow dates and dark-colored dates—————
  7. are preserved directly after harvested
  8. are preserved differently after harvested
  9. are bad for muscles
  10. are difficult to digest
  11. One of the following is not an advantage for dates:
  12. Dates strengthen heart and uterus muscles
  13. Dates increase constipation
  14. Dates prevent night blindness
  15. Dates improve eyes health
  16. The passage is mainly talking about:
  17. The advantages of dates
  18. How and where dates grow
  19. Why Arabs eat dates with milk
  20. How dates improve eyes health

Reading table 32

1-C 2-C 3-A 4-B 5-A

Questions

  1. Which Section is the longest?
  2. Section 3
  3. Section 1
  4. Section 4
  5. Section 5
  6. In which section do you find information about new books?
  7. Section 1
  8. Section 4
  9. Section 5
  10. Section 2
  11. This magazine is a magazine of —————-
  12. Science
  13. psychology
  14. biology
  15. global warming
  16. What was the subject of the annual meeting?
  17. Global warning

b.Nervous system

  1. New books
  2. Shaking up science
  3. In which section, the subject is not clear to the reader?
  4. Section 1
  5. Section 4
  6. Section 5
  7. Section 2

Passage animals endangered 33

  1. A species is the name for a group of animals that are alike, such as lions and tigers. If a species is endangered it means there are very few of those animals left in the world. If all the animals in a species die, the species becomes extinct. Those animals are gone forever. Many species are protected. A protected species means governments have made laws against killing the animals.
  2. النوع هو اسم لمجموعة من الحيوانات التي هي على حد سواء، مثل الأسود والنمور. إذا تعرض أحد الأنواع للخطر، فهذا يعني أن هناك القليل جدا من تلك الحيوانات التي تركت في العالم. إذا ماتت جميع الحيوانات في الأنواع، فإن الأنواع تصبح منقرضة. تلك الحيوانات قد ذهبت إلى الأبد. العديد من الأنواع محمية. فالأنواع المحمية تعني أن الحكومات وضعت قوانين ضد قتل الحيوانات.
  1. We are at a point where many, if not most, of the animals and plants are on the verge of being extinct. This has reached such an alarming rate that some species of animals are already extinct and if this trend continues, we will lose more species in the animals. There are several reasons for this and I will discuss some in this essay as well as give solutions to what can be done to prevent this.
  2. نحن في نقطة حيث العديد، إن لم يكن معظم، من الحيوانات والنباتات على وشك الانقراض. وقد وصل هذا المعدل المقلق إلى أن بعض أنواع الحيوانات قد انقرضت بالفعل، وإذا استمر هذا الاتجاه، فإننا سوف تفقد المزيد من الأنواع في الحيوانات. هناك عدة أسباب لذلك، وسوف نناقش بعض في هذا المقال فضلا عن تقديم حلول لما يمكن القيام به لمنع هذا
  1. The most important reason for the decreasing number of animal species is being hunting down of endangered species for their skin or body parts. For instance, elephants are being hunted down even now for their tusks which is used to make ivory products and sold to the market for a high price. This clearly shows how the animal kingdom is being affected by the killing of animals. Another reason is deforestation . We are all aware that due to overcrowded cities, the cities are being expanded by cutting down trees to make space for more land area for more construction of houses.

3 – والسبب الأهم وراء تناقص عدد أنواع الحيوانات هو صيد الأنواع المهددة بالانقراض لأجزاء الجلد أو الجسم. على سبيل المثال، يتم البحث عن الأفيال حتى الآن لأنيابها التي تستخدم لصنع منتجات العاج وبيعها إلى السوق بسعر مرتفع. وهذا يبين بوضوح كيف تتأثر المملكة الحيوانية من قتل الحيوانات. سبب آخر هو إزالة الغابات. ونحن ندرك جميعا أنه نظرا للمدن المكتظة، يجري توسيع المدن عن طريق خفض الأشجار لإفساح المجال لمزيد من مساحة الأرض لمزيد من بناء المنازل.

  1. There are several things that can be done to prevent this from happening. Firstly, there should be a strict law in place to prevent fishing of rare sea creatures like Blue cod fish, shrimps, lobsters. In countries such as Kuwait, there is already an initiative by the government that permits fishing of shrimps only for 2 months. This gives enough time for breeding and hence there will be stability in marine life.
  2. هناك العديد من الأشياء التي يمكن القيام بها لمنع حدوث ذلك. أولا، ينبغي أن يكون هناك قانون صارم في مكان لمنع الصيد من المخلوقات البحرية النادرة مثل سمك القد الأزرق، الروبيان، جراد البحر. وفي بلدان مثل الكويت، هناك بالفعل مبادرة من الحكومة تسمح بصيد الجمبري لمدة شهرين فقط. وهذا يعطي ما يكفي من الوقت للتربية، وبالتالي سيكون هناك استقرار في الحياة البحرية.

 

 

1-A/ 2- D/ 3- A /4- B/ 5- C

Questions

  1. The first paragraph is explaining the ……………
  2. meanings of important words in the passage
  3. the meaning of the word ” species”
  4. the meaning of the word ” extinct”
  5. the meaning of the term ” protected species”
  6. The word “this” in paragraph 2 refers to……………..
  7. reasons
  8. animals
  9. species
  10. losing more species in the animals
  11. Paragraph 3 is mainly talking about…………………
  12. the reasons why the number of animal species is decreasing
  13. elephants which are being hunted down for their tusks
  14. deforestation as a main reason for species extinct
  15. the cities which are being expanded by cutting down trees
  16. The word deforestation in paragraph 3 probably means…………..
  17. killing animals
  18. cutting down trees
  19. crowded cities
  20. expansion
  21. The last paragraph is talking about…………………..
  22. kinds of fish
  23. Kuwait country
  24. the ways of protecting animal species
  25. fishing of shrimps only for 2 months.

Passage Suez-Canal 34

  1. The idea of connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea is as old as the pharaohs. The first canal in the region seems to have been dug about 1850 BCE, but it failed. Desert winds blew in and closed the canal. About 150 years ago, Great Britain had a growing trade with India, but without a canal, British ships had to make a long journey around the continent of Africa in order to trade with India. A canal through the Isthmus of Suez would cut the journey from Great Britain to India by 6,000 miles. An isthmus is a narrow long piece of land connecting two larger pieces of land.
  1. فكرة ربط البحر المتوسط بالبحر الأحمر قديمة قدمها الفراعنة. يبدو أن القناة الأولى في المنطقة قد حفرت حوالي 1850 قبل الميلاد، لكنها فشلت. فجرت الرياح الصحراوية وأغلقت القناة. قبل 150 عاما، كانت بريطانيا العظمى تتزايد التجارة مع الهند، ولكن من دون قناة، كان على السفن البريطانية القيام برحلة طويلة في جميع أنحاء القارة الأفريقية من أجل التجارة مع الهند. ومن شأن قناة من خلال برزخ السويس أن تقطع الرحلة من بريطانيا العظمى إلى الهند بمقدار 6000 ميل. البرزخ هو قطعة أرض طويلة ضيقة تربط بين قطعتين أكبر من الأرض.
  1. A French company led by Ferdinand de Lesseps made a deal with Egypt to build the Suez Canal. After ten years of work, the canal opened in 1869. The Egyptian ruler, Ismail, celebrated the opening of the Suez Canal by building a huge palace in Cairo. Ismail treated royalty from around the world to a celebration in honor of the new canal. The heavy spending for the celebration came at a time when the price of Egyptian cotton went down. Egypt had gone into debt to pay for the Suez Canal. Ismail took out loans from European banks, but he was unable to repay the loans.

Consequently, Egypt was forced to sell its share of the Suez Canal to Great Britain.

  1. قامت شركة فرنسية بقيادة فرديناند دي ليسيبس باتفاق مع مصر لبناء قناة السويس. بعد عشر سنوات من العمل، افتتحت القناة في عام 1869. احتفل الحاكم المصري، إسماعيل، بافتتاح قناة السويس ببناء قصر ضخم في القاهرة. عالج إسماعيل الملوك من جميع أنحاء العالم إلى احتفال تكريما للقناة الجديدة. وجاء الإنفاق الشاق للاحتفال في الوقت الذي انخفض فيه سعر القطن المصري. وكانت مصر قد حصلت على ديون لدفع قناة السويس. وأخذ إسماعيل قروض من البنوك الأوروبية، لكنه لم يتمكن من تسديد القروض. ونتيجة لذلك، اضطرت مصر إلى بيع حصتها من قناة السويس إلى بريطانيا العظمى.
  1. In 1956, Egyptian president Jamal Abdel Nasser planned to build a great dam to control the annual flooding of the Nile River. Nasser asked the United States and Great Britain for financial assistance, and when the two powerful nations refused, Nasser declared the Suez Canal to be the property of the Egyptian people. Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt. Several nations voted to authorize the United Nation to send peacekeeping forces to the Suez and to
  2. call for Britain, France and Israel to leave the region, and Egypt gained control of the canal. The Suez Canal closed again during a 1967 war with Israel. The canal did not reopen for international trade until 1975. Egypt continues to control the Suez Canal, but now international treaties assure that the canal may be used “in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag.
  3. في عام 1956، خطط الرئيس المصري جمال عبد الناصر لبناء سد كبير للسيطرة على الفيضانات السنوية لنهر النيل. وطلب ناصر من الولايات المتحدة وبريطانيا الحصول على مساعدة مالية، وعندما رفضت الدولتان القويتان، أعلن ناصر أن قناة السويس ملكا للشعب المصري. وقد هاجمت بريطانيا وفرنسا واسرائيل مصر. وقد صوتت عدة دول على السماح للامم المتحدة بارسال قوات حفظ سلام الى السويس ودعوة بريطانيا وفرنسا واسرائيل لمغادرة المنطقة واستيلاء مصر على القناة. أغلقت قناة السويس مرة أخرى خلال حرب 1967 مع إسرائيل. ولم تستأنف القناة التجارة الدولية حتى عام 1975. ولا تزال مصر تسيطر على قناة السويس، ولكن المعاهدات الدولية تؤكد الآن أن القناة يمكن أن تستخدم “في زمن الحرب كما في زمن السلم، من قبل كل سفينة تجارية أو حرب، دون تمييز العلم.

1-A/ 2- B /3- C /4-B /5- C

Questions

  1. The main idea of Paragraph 1 is……………
  2. Connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea was a very old idea
  3. The first canal seems to have been dug about 1850 BCE, but it failed
  4. British ships had to make a long journey around the continent of Africa
  5. An isthmus is a narrow land connecting two larger pieces of land
  6. Probably the French company started digging the Suez canal in …………….
  7. 1869
  8. 1859
  9. 1969
  10. 1855 \
  11. Egypt was forced to sell its share of the Suez Canal to Great Britain because……
  12. the price of Egyptian cotton went down
  13. Egyptian ruler, Ismail, celebrated the opening of the Suez Canal
  14. Ismail, the Egyptian ruler, took out loans from European banks, but he was unable to repay the loans
  15. The Suez canal project failed
  16. In 1956, ……………………countries attacked Egypt, but in 1967 only one country.
  17. 2
  18. 3
  19. 5
  20. 4
  21. Now according to international treaties, the Suez canal can be used ……………..
  22. only in peace
  23. only in war
  24. in peace or in war
  25. by commerce vessels only

Passage blood types 35

  1. Although all blood is made of the same basic elements, not all blood is alike. There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells: There are four basic blood types in the A B O typing system:
  1. على الرغم من أن كل الدم يتكون من العناصر الأساسية نفسها، وليس كل الدم على حد سواء. هناك أربع مجموعات دم رئيسية يحددها وجود أو عدم وجود مستضدتين – A و B – على سطح خلايا الدم الحمراء: هناك أربعة أنواع الدم الأساسية في نظام الكتابة A B O:

 Type A blood has the Group A antigens and makes antibodies to fight Group B  blood.

 Type B blood has the Group B antigens and makes antibodies to fight Group A blood.

 Type AB blood has both Groups A and B antigens, but doesn’t make antibodies for either one.

 Type O blood doesn’t have either type of antigen.

  • نوع A الدم لديه مستضدات المجموعة ألف ويجعل الأجسام المضادة لمحاربة الدم المجموعة B.
  • نوع B الدم لديه مستضدات المجموعة B ويجعل الأجسام المضادة لمحاربة الدم المجموعة A.
  • نوع الدم أب له كلا المستضدات المجموعة A و B، ولكن لا يجعل الأجسام المضادة لأي واحد.
  • نوع O الدم ليس لديها أي نوع من مستضد.
  1. Blood type is inherited. Like eye color, it is passed genetically from your parents. Whether your blood group is

type A, B, AB or O is based on the blood types of your mother and father.

  1. وراثة نوع الدم. مثل لون العين، يتم تمريره وراثيا من والديك. ما إذا كانت فصيلة الدم الخاصة بك نوع A، B، أب أو O يقوم على أنواع الدم من أمك وأبيك.
  1. Donating or receiving blood is complicated by the fact that there are four types

of blood. Type O blood, since it doesn’t have antibodies or antigens for either

type, can be donated to recipients with all four types of blood. Type AB, on the

other hand, since it has both A and B antigens and also does not create

antibodies for either antigen, can receive blood from all four types, but can only donate to other AB recipients.

  1. التبرع أو تلقي الدم معقد بسبب وجود أربعة أنواع من الدم. نوع O الدم، لأنه لا يملك الأجسام المضادة أو المستضدات لأي منهما

نوع، يمكن التبرع بها للمستفيدين مع جميع أنواع الأربعة من الدم. اكتب أب، على اليد الأخرى، لأنه يحتوي على المستضدات A و B وأيضا لا تخلق

الأجسام المضادة لأي مستضد، ويمكن الحصول على الدم من جميع الأنواع الأربعة، ولكن يمكن أن تبرع فقط لمالكي أب الآخرين.

  1. Type O blood can receive A, B or AB types through transfusion. Type O- blood

is known as the universal donor. AB+ blood, on the other hand, is blood with

all the proteins already in it. AB+ patients are known as universal recipients

because their bodies will accept all types

 

  1. نوع O الدم يمكن الحصول على A، B أو أب أنواع من خلال نقل الدم. اكتب O- الدم المعروف باسم المانح العالمي. أب + الدم، من ناحية أخرى، هو الدم مع جميع البروتينات بالفعل في ذلك. يعرف مرضى أب + كمتلقين عالميين لأن أجسامهم سوف تقبل جميع الأنواع

 

1-B/ 2-D/ 3-A /4- D

Questions

  1. Blood group ……………………… has no antigens.
  2. (A)
  3. (O)
  4. (AB)
  5. (B)
  6. The underlined word “inherited” in paragraph 2 probably means…………….
  7. blood
  8. type
  9. eye color
  10. taken from parents
  11. Type (O) blood can be donated to recipients with all four types of blood

because ……………….

  1. it doesn’t have antibodies or antigens for either type
  2. it has A antigens
  3. it has B antigens
  4. it has AB antigens
  5. The blood type that can receive blood from all four types, but can only donate to other AB recipients is called……………….
  6. ( O)
  7. (A )
  8. (B )
  9. (AB)

———


 

Passage Honey 36

Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees is the one most commonly referenced, as it is the type of honey collected by beekeepers and consumed by humans. Honey produced

 by other bees and insects has distinctly different properties.  Honey gets its sweetness from the fructose and glucose, and has approximately the same relative sweetness as that of granulated sugar. It has attractive chemical properties

 for baking, and a distinctive flavor that leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweeteners.

العسل هو الطعام الحلو التي أدلى بها النحل باستخدام الرحيق من الزهور. الصنف الذي ينتجه نحل العسل هو الأكثر شيوعا المشار إليه، كما هو نوع من العسل التي تم جمعها من قبل النحالين واستهلاكها من قبل البشر. العسل المنتجة      من قبل النحل الأخرى والحشرات وخصائص مختلفة بشكل واضح. العسل يحصل على حلاوة من الفركتوز والجلوكوز، ولها تقريبا نفس الحلاوة النسبية التي من السكر الحبيبية. ولها خصائص كيميائية جذابة للخبز، ونكهة مميزة تقود بعض الناس إلى تفضيلها على السكر والمحليات الأخرى.

Honey has a long history of human consumption, and is used in various foods and

 beverages as a sweetener and flavoring. It also has a role in religion and symbolism. Flavors of honey vary based on the nectar source, and various types and grades of honey are available. It is also used in various medicinal traditions to treat ailments .

العسل لديه تاريخ طويل من الاستهلاك البشري، ويستخدم في مختلف الأطعمة والمشروبات باعتبارها التحلية والنكهة. كما أن لها دورا في الدين والرمزية. النكهات من العسل تختلف على أساس مصدر الرحيق، وأنواع مختلفة والدرجات من العسل المتاحة. كما أنها تستخدم في مختلف التقاليد الطبية لعلاج الأمراض.

Honey is produced by bees as a food source. In cold weather or when fresh food sources are scarce, bees use their stored honey as their source of energy. By arranging for bee swarms to nest in artificial hives, people have been able to domesticate the insects, and harvest excess honey. In the hive, there are three types of bees: a single female queen

bee a seasonally variable number of male bees to fertilize new queens some 20,000 to 40,000 female worker bees.

يتم إنتاج العسل من النحل كمصدر للغذاء. وفي الطقس البارد أو عندما تكون مصادر الغذاء الطازج شحيحة، يستخدم النحل العسل المخزن كمصدر للطاقة. من خلال ترتيب أسراب النحل لعش في خلايا النحل الاصطناعية، كان الناس قادرين على إضفاء الطابع المحلي على الحشرات، وحصاد العسل الزائد. في الخلية، هناك ثلاثة أنواع من النحل: ملكة أنثى واحدة النحل عدد متغير موسميا من النحل الذكور لتسميد ملكات جديدة ما بين 20،000 إلى 40،000 النحل العامل.

The physical properties of honey vary, depending on water content, the type of flora used to produce it, temperature, and the proportion of the specific sugars it contains. Fresh honey is a supersaturated liquid, containing more sugar than the water can typically dissolve at surrounding temperatures. At room temperature, honey is a supercooled liquid, in which the glucose will precipitate into solid granules.

تختلف الخصائص الفيزيائية للعسل، اعتمادا على محتوى الماء، ونوع النباتات المستخدمة لإنتاجه، ودرجة الحرارة، ونسبة السكريات المحددة التي يحتوي عليها. العسل الطازج هو سائل فوق التشبع، يحتوي على المزيد من السكر من الماء يمكن أن يذوب عادة عند درجات الحرارة المحيطة. في درجة حرارة الغرفة، والعسل هو سائل سوبركولد، حيث الجلوكوز سوف تترسب إلى حبيبات الصلبة.

Because of its unique composition and chemical properties, honey is suitable for long-term storage. Honey has been preserved for decades and even centuries. The key to preservation is limiting access to humidity. In its cured state, honey has a sufficiently high sugar content to inhibit fermentation. If exposed to moist air, its hydrophilic properties will pull moisture into the honey, eventually diluting it to the point that fermentation can begin. Honey sealed in honeycomb cells by the bees is considered by many to be the ideal form for preservation.

بسبب تكوينه الفريد والخصائص الكيميائية، والعسل هو مناسبة للتخزين على المدى الطويل. وقد تم الحفاظ على العسل لعقود وحتى قرون. مفتاح الحفاظ هو الحد من الوصول إلى الرطوبة. في حالته الشفاء، العسل لديه نسبة عالية من السكر بما فيه الكفاية لمنع التخمير. إذا تعرضت للهواء الرطب، وخصائص ماء لها سحب الرطوبة في العسل، في نهاية المطاف تمييع إلى النقطة التي يمكن أن تبدأ التخمير. العسل مختومة في خلايا العسل من قبل النحل يعتبر من قبل العديد من أن يكون النموذج المثالي للحفظ.

Honey should also be protected from oxidation and temperature degradation. It generally should not be preserved in metal containers because the acids in the honey may promote oxidation of the vessel. Traditionally, honey was stored in ceramic or wooden containers; however, glass and plastic are now the favored materials. Honey stored in wooden containers may be discolored or take on flavors imparted from the vessel. Likewise, honey stored uncovered near other foods may absorb other smells.

وينبغي أيضا أن تكون محمية العسل من الأكسدة وتدهور درجة الحرارة. عموما لا ينبغي الحفاظ عليها في حاويات معدنية لأن الأحماض في العسل قد تعزز أكسدة السفينة. تقليديا، تم تخزين العسل في حاويات السيراميك أو خشبية. ومع ذلك، الزجاج والبلاستيك هي الآن المواد المفضلة. قد يتم تغيير لون العسل المخزن في حاويات خشبية أو يأخذ النكهات المنقولة من السفينة. وبالمثل، فإن العسل المخزن المكشوف بالقرب من الأطعمة الأخرى قد يمتص الروائح الأخرى.

Excessive heat can have detrimental effects on the nutritional value of honey. Heating up to 37 °C (99 °F) causes loss

 of nearly 200 components, some of which are antibacterial. Heating up to 40 °C (104 °F) destroys invertase, an important enzyme. At 50 °C (122 °F), the honey sugars burn. Generally, any large temperature fluctuation causes decay.

الحرارة المفرطة يمكن أن يكون لها آثار ضارة على القيمة الغذائية للعسل. التدفئة تصل إلى 37 درجة مئوية (99 درجة فهرنهايت) يسبب فقدان

  من ما يقرب من 200 المكونات، وبعضها مضاد للبكتيريا. تسخين تصل إلى 40 درجة مئوية (104 درجة فهرنهايت) يدمر إنفرتاز، وهو انزيم مهم. عند 50 درجة مئوية (122 درجة فهرنهايت)، تحرق السكريات العسلية. وبصفة عامة، فإن أي تذبذب كبير في درجة الحرارة يسبب تلف.

Regardless of preservation, honey may crystallize over time. Crystallization does not affect the flavor, quality or nutritional content of the honey, though it does affect color and texture. The rate is a function of storage temperature, availability of “seed” crystals and the specific mix of sugars and trace compounds in the honey. Most honeys crystallize fastest between about 50 and 70 °F (10 and 21 °C). The crystals can be dissolved by heating the honey.

بغض النظر عن الحفظ، قد يتبلور العسل مع مرور الوقت. التبلور لا يؤثر على نكهة، جودة أو المحتوى الغذائي للعسل، على الرغم من أنها لا تؤثر على اللون والملمس. هذا المعدل هو وظيفة من درجة حرارة التخزين، وتوافر بلورات “البذور” ومزيج معين من السكريات ومركبات النزرة في العسل. معظم العسل تتبلور أسرع بين حوالي 50 و 70 درجة فهرنهايت (10 و 21 درجة مئوية). بلورات يمكن حلها عن طريق تسخين العسل.

 

 

1-C/ 2- C /3-C/ 4- A/ 5- B/ 6-A

Questions

  1. Some people prefer honey over sugar and other sweeteners because———-
  2. a) it is produced by bees
  3. b) it is sweet
  4. c) of its unique flavor
  5. d) it is better for health than sugar
  6. Bees use honey as a food source———————-
  7. a) when the weather is too hot
  8. b) when they get tired
  9. c) when the food is rare
  10. d) when they are sick
  11. One of the following doesn’t affect the physical properties of honey
  12. a) water content
  13. b) type of flowers
  14. c) type of bees
  15. d) high or low temperature
  16. The best way to preserve honey is ——————
  17. a) to seal it in honeycomb cells
  18. b) to keep it in metal containers
  19. c) to keep it in wooden vessels
  20. d) to cool it in room temperature
  21. The underlined word “invertase” is probably——————-
  22. a) an important honey sugar
  23. b) an important enzyme
  24. c) an antibacterial component
  25. d) a honey decay
  26. One of the following statements is false:
  27. a) Honey crystallization affects its nutritional content
  28. b) Honey flavor is not affected by its crystallization
  29. c) Honey color is affected by crystallization
  30. d) Honey crystallization can be dissolved by heating

Passage poisonous 37

  1. A creature is considered poisonous if it contains toxins stored in special tissues

or organs that cause harm when eaten. A creature is considered venomous if

there are specialized mechanisms to physically deliver the toxins through bites,

spines and stings. For example, a pufferfish is poisonous when eaten but is not

venomous in that it does not bite or sting in order to deliver the toxins present in

certain organs in its body. By contrast, a stonefish is venomous as it has

pressure-sensitive glands and spines that help to deliver its toxins when stepped on.

  1. يعتبر مخلوقا ساما إذا كان يحتوي على السموم المخزنة في الأنسجة الخاصة أو الأجهزة التي تسبب ضررا عند تناولها. ويعتبر مخلوق سامة إذا هناك آليات متخصصة لتوصيل السموم جسديا من خلال لدغات، العمود الفقري واللسعات. على سبيل المثال، بوفيرفيش سامة عندما تؤكل ولكن ليس كذلك السامة في أنه لا لدغة أو لدغة من أجل تقديم السموم الموجودة في

بعض الأجهزة في جسدها. وعلى النقيض من ذلك، فإن الحجر الرملي هو السامة كما لديها والغدد الحساسة للضغط والأعمدة العمود الفقري التي تساعد على تقديم السموم لها عندما صعدت على.

  1. Marine creatures within the reef ecosystem have evolved different types of

predatory and defensive mechanisms in order to survive such as venomous

stings, spines and bites. Many of these are among some of the world’s most

venomous creatures. In Animal Planet’s (Most Extreme: Venom) program,

marine creatures made up half the list of the top ten most venomous creatures.

These include the box jellyfish, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, cone shells and

sea snakes. All of these, other than the box jellyfish, can be found in Malaysian

waters.

. وقد تطورت المخلوقات البحرية داخل النظام البيئي للشعاب المرجانية أنواعا مختلفة من والآليات الدفاعية والدفاعية من أجل البقاء على قيد الحياة مثل السامة لسعات، العمود الفقري والدغات. العديد من هذه هي من بين أكثر من العالم المخلوقات السامة. في برنامج كوكب الحيوان (الأكثر المتطرفة: السم) تشكل المخلوقات البحرية نصف قائمة العشرة الأوائل الأكثر المخلوقات السامة. وتشمل هذه قنديل البحر مربع، ستونفيش، الأخطبوط الأزرق الحلق، قذائف مخروط و ثعابين البحر. كل هذه، غير قناديل البحر مربع، ويمكن العثور عليها في الماليزية مياه.

  1. Fortunately for us, these creatures are not naturally aggressive toward humans

and do not go out of their way to attack us. It is only when our presence and

behavior threatens and provokes them that they act in self-defense. Most

unpleasant encounters and injuries are caused by people accidentally touching

them, stepping on them, trespassing onto their nesting sites, harassing them or

handling them roughly. Avoiding physical contact is one of the best precautions

we can take.

  1. لحسن الحظ بالنسبة لنا، هذه المخلوقات ليست طبيعية عدوانية تجاه البشر ولا تخرج من طريقها لمهاجمتنا. هو فقط عندما وجودنا و ويهددهم بأنهم يتصرفون دفاعا عن النفس. عظم وتسبب اللقاءات غير السارة والإصابات من قبل الناس لمس بطريق الخطأ

أو تخطيها، أو التعدي على مواقع التعشيش، أو التحرش بها أو التعامل معها تقريبا. تجنب الاتصال الجسدي هو واحد من أفضل الاحتياطات يمكن أن نتخذها

 

1-C/ 2- D/ 3- C /4- A /5- B

 

Questions

  1. The first paragraph is explaining the ……………
  2. meaning of venomous marine creatures only
  3. meaning of poisonous marine creatures only
  4. difference between venomous marine creatures and poisonous ones
  5. meaning of the term ” protected species”
  6. You probably get poisoned if you eat this kind of fish…………..
  7. a box jellyfish
  8. a stonefish
  9. cone shells
  10. a pufferfish
  11. The top most marine venomous creatures are……………. kinds.
  12. 2
  13. 10
  14. 5
  15. 7
  16. One of these marine venomous creatures can’t be found in the Malaysian aters…………..
  17. the box jellyfish
  18. The blue-ringed octopus
  19. the cone shells
  20. the sea snakes
  21. Marine venomous creatures ………………
  22. are aggressive toward humans
  23. attack humans if threatened and they act in self-defense
  24. go out of their ways to attack humans
  25. love human beings

Passage  Translating Quran 38

  1. Translating the Quran has always been problematic and difficult. Many said

that the Quranic text cannot be translated into another language or form.

Furthermore, an Arabic word may have many meanings depending on the

context, making an accurate translation even more difficult.

  1. ترجمة القرآن كان دائما إشكالية وصعبة. وقال كثيرون أن النص القرآني لا يمكن ترجمته إلى لغة أو شكل آخر. وعلاوة على ذلك، فإن الكلمة العربية قد يكون لها معان كثيرة اعتمادا على السياق، مما يجعل ترجمة دقيقة أكثر صعوبة.
  1. The first fully attested complete translations of the Quran were done between the 10th and 12th centuries in Persian. The Samanid king, Mansur I (961-976), ordered a group of scholars from Khorasan to translate the Tafsir al-Tabari,

originally in Arabic, into Persian. In 1936, translations in 102 languages were

known. In 2010, the Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review reported that

the Quran was presented in 112 languages at the 18th International Quran

Exhibition in Tehran.

  1. تم إجراء أول ترجمة كاملة كاملة للقرآن الكريم بين القرنين العاشر والثاني عشر باللغة الفارسية. الملك السمانيد، منصور الأول (961-976)، أمر مجموعة من العلماء من خراسان لترجمة تفسير الطبري،باللغة العربية، إلى اللغة الفارسية. في عام 1936، كانت الترجمات في 102 لغةمعروف. في عام 2010، ذكرت صحيفة هريت ديلي نيوز والاستعراض الاقتصادي أنتم تقديم القرآن الكريم في 112 لغة في القرآن الدولي ال 18في طهران.
  1. Alexander Ross offered the first English version in 1649, from the French

translation of L’Alcoran de Mahomet (1647) by Andre du Ryer. In 1734, George

Sale produced the first scholarly translation of the Quran into English; another

was produced by Richard Bell in 1937, and yet another by Arthur John

Arberry in 1955. All these translators were non-Muslims. There have been

numerous translations by Muslims.

  1. عرض الكسندر روس النسخة الإنجليزية الأولى في عام 1649، من الفرنسية ترانزلاتيون أوف L’ألكوران دي ماهوميت (1647) بي أندري دو رير. في عام 1734، جورج بيع أنتجت أول ترجمة علمية للقرآن إلى اللغة الإنجليزية. آخر تم إنتاجه من قبل ريتشارد بيل في عام 1937، وآخر من آرثر جون أربيري في عام 1955. كل هؤلاء المترجمين كانوا من غير المسلمين. كانت هناك العديد من الترجمات من قبل المسلمين.
  1. As with translations of the Bible, the English translators have sometimes

favored archaic English words and constructions over their more modern or

Conventional equivalents; for example, two widely read translators, A. Yusuf Ali

and M. Marmaduke Pickthall, use the plural and singular “ye” and “thou” instead of the more common “you”.

 

  1. كما هو الحال مع ترجمات الكتاب المقدس، والمترجمين الإنجليزية في بعض الأحيان

فضل الكلمات الإنجليزية القديمة والإنشاءات على أكثر حداثة أوالمعادلات التقليدية؛ على سبيل المثال، اثنين من المترجمين قراءة على نطاق واسع، A. يوسف علي و M. مارمادوك بيكثال، استخدام الجمع و المفرد “أنت” و “أنت” بدلا من أكثر شيوعا “أنت“.

 

1-D /2- A/ 3- B/ 4- D

Questions

  1. It was thought that it was difficult to translate the Quran into another language because……………
  2. Arabic language is difficult and problematic
  3. an Arabic word may have many meanings depending on the context
  4. making an accurate translation was even more difficult
  5. (B+C)
  6. Paragraph 2 is mainly talking about translating the Quran …………………….
  7. into many languages
  8. into Persian
  9. in the 10th and 12th centuries
  10. in 1936 and 2010
  11. The first translation of the Quran into English was from ……………
  12. Arabic
  13. French
  14. Persian
  15. Russian
  16. If you are reading an English translation for the Quran, and you see the word “thou”, you understand that it means……………….
  17. they
  18. she
  19. we
  20. you

———


 

Passage blue whale 39

  1. The whale is an extremely huge sea animal. The blue whale is the largest living

animal to have ever lived on the planet Earth. Some weighed almost 50 tons.

Their tongues alone can weigh as much as an elephant. Their hearts, as much as

a car. The largest Blue Whales can grow as large as 100 feet long, which is

longer than three school buses put together!

  1. الحوت هو حيوان البحر ضخمة للغاية. الحوت الأزرق هو أكبر معيشة الحيوان أن عاشوا على الإطلاق على كوكب الأرض. بعض وزنها حوالي 50 طنا. يمكن لسانهم وحدها أن تزن بقدر الفيل. قلوبهم، بقدر ما

سيارة. أكبر الحيتان الزرقاء يمكن أن تنمو كبيرة مثل 100 قدم طويلة، وهو أطول من ثلاث حافلات مدرسية وضعت معا!

  1. Even though blue whales are huge, they eat tiny creatures known as krill. Krill are tiny shrimp-like animals. The whale simply opens its mouth, fills it with

krill and salt water, and filters the water out of plates in its mouth. The blue

whale may eat over 3,6000 kg of krill in a single day!

  1. على الرغم من الحيتان الزرقاء ضخمة، فإنها تأكل مخلوقات صغيرة تعرف باسم كريل. الكريل هي الحيوانات الصغيرة مثل الروبيان. الحوت ببساطة يفتح فمه، يملأ مع كريل والمياه المالحة، وفلاتر المياه من لوحات في فمه. الازرق الحوت قد يأكل أكثر من 3،6000 كجم من كريل في يوم واحد!
  1. All species of whales give birth to their young alive, usually one at a time. A

blue whale at birth weighs something like four tons. Whales suckle their young

just like other mammals. A baby blue whale is capable of drinking half a ton of

its mother’s rich, thick milk. A baby blue whale (calf) emerges weighing up to

2,7000 kg and up to 8m long. New born whales are helped to the surface of the

water by their mothers and are often encouraged by other females so that they

can take their first breath of air. The calf is suckled in the water, drinking more

than 600 liters of milk each day and gaining about 90kg every day for its first year.

 

  1. جميع أنواع الحيتان تلد صغارهم على قيد الحياة، وعادة واحدة في كل مرة. ا الحوت الأزرق عند الولادة يزن شيئا مثل أربعة أطنان. الحيتان، رضع، هم، جرو تماما مثل الثدييات الأخرى. الحوت الأزرق الطفل قادر على شرب نصف طن من حليب الأم الغنية، سميكة. ويظهر حوت أزرق أزرق (عجل) يصل وزنه إلى

2،7000 كجم و حتى 8 متر طويلة. ويساعد الحيتان المولودين حديثا على سطح المياه من قبل أمهاتهم وغالبا ما تشجع من قبل الإناث الأخرى حتى يتسنى لهم يمكن أن تأخذ نفسا أول من الهواء. يتم امتصاص العجل في الماء، وشرب أكثر من ذلك أكثر من 600 لتر من الحليب كل يوم واكتساب حوالي 90kg كل يوم للسنة الأولى.

 

1-A/ 2- D /3- A /4-A

Questions

  1. The first paragraph is mainly taking about…………….
  2. a description for the body of the blue whale
  3. the weight and length of the blue whale
  4. the blue whale and elephants
  5. the blue whale and school buses
  6. A Krill is………………….
  7. a tiny creature
  8. a shrimp-like animal
  9. the main food of the blue whale
  10. All above are correct
  11. The last paragraph is mainly giving good information about…………………
  12. the baby blue whale
  13. how much milk the baby blue whale can drink
  14. the weight of the baby blue whale
  15. the mother of the baby blue whale
  16. The underline word “suckle” in the last paragraph probably means…………
  17. feed from breast
  18. feed from bottle
  19. give birth
  20. gain weight

Passage  Airbags 40

  1. Over the years, cars have gotten better. They have gotten faster. They have gotten more comfortable. They have gotten safer. Airbags are one thing that has been added to cars to make them safer. Airbags help to keep drivers safe when an accident happens.
  1. Airbags are hidden inside cars. One airbag is hidden in the steering wheel. One airbag is hidden in the dashboard on the passenger’s side of the car. Some cars have airbags that are hidden around the windows on the sides of the car. If the car is in a crash, the airbags inflate. They pop out of their hiding places. The airbags act as pillows to protect the heads of the people in the car.

 

  1. An airbag is a vehicle safety device. It is a type of occupant restraint system that consists of a flexible fabric bag, also known as an airbag cushion. The airbag module is designed to inflate rapidly then quickly deflate during a collision or impact with another object. The purpose of the airbag is to provide occupant protection during a crash event.

 

  1. The original implementation of front airbags did little to protect against

side collisions, which can be more dangerous than frontal collisions because the protective crumple zone in front of the passenger compartment is completely bypassed. Side airbags and protective airbag curtains are increasingly being required in modern vehicles to protect against this very common category of collisions.

 

  1. تنفيذ الأصلي من الوسائد الهوائية الأمامية لم تفعل سوى القليل لحماية ضد التصادمات الجانبية، والتي يمكن أن تكون أكثر خطورة من الاصطدامات الأمامية لأن منطقة الثمالة واقية أمام مقصورة الركاب يتم تجاوزها تماما. وهناك حاجة متزايدة إلى الوسائد الهوائية الجانبية والستائر الهوائية الواقية في السيارات الحديثة للحماية من هذه الفئة الشائعة جدا من التصادمات.

 

  1. Airbags are designed to deploy once only, and are ineffective if there are any further collisions after an initial impact. Multiple impacts may occur during certain rollover accidents or other incidents involving multiple collisions.

 

1-C/ 2-D /3-A/ 4- C/ 5-A

Questions

  1. Airbags make cars…………..
  2. faster
  3. better
  4. safer
  5. more comfortable
  6. Airbags are hidden…………… of the car
  7. inside the steering
  8. in the dashboard
  9. on the sides
  10. All of the above are correct
  11. The underlined word ” inflate” in paragraph 2 probably means…………..
  12. pop out
  13. deflate
  14. hidden
  15. crash
  16. Paragraph 4 is mainly taking about importance of ……………..
  17. airbags in vehicles
  18. front airbags to protect against side collisions
  19. side airbags to protect against side collisions
  20. avoiding frontal collisions
  21. Airbags were designed to be used……………
  22. one time
  23. 2 times
  24. 3 times
  25. 4 times

Passage octopus 21

The octopus is a strange yet awesome creature of the sea. There are about 50 kinds of them. They range from 3 inches (7 centimeters) to 10 feet (3 meters) long. The larger ones can weigh at 70 pounds (32 kilograms).

Octopuses look and behave similarly. They all have 8 arms. Suckers run up and down each arm. The larger ones are quite strong. They can grab a full grown man and drag him down to the bottom of the sea.

The octopus is actually a predator in the sea, but not the one that hunts for people. It feeds on a variety of sea creatures, such as crabs. It generally drops down onto the seabed, trapping crabs. It hunts by shooting out a poison into the water to shock the crab and uses its beak to crack the shell of the crab and eat the meat. Apart from crabs, octopuses also eat other types of shellfish like abalone.

Octopuses swim and walk on the very ends of their arms like they’re dancing. Their bodies move fluidly because they have no bones. They can hide on the rocks by changing their colors. When they are at risk, they shoot out a spray of purple ink and take off. And if they lose one of their arms, another one will grow back.

1-A /2-D /3-B/ 4-A /5-B

Questions

  1. The larger octopuses can weigh up to……………….
  2. 32 kilograms.
  3. 70 kilograms
  4. 10 pounds
  5. 50 pounds.
  6. The pronoun “ they” in paragraph 2 refers to……………
  7. arms
  8. suckers
  9. men
  10. octopuses
  11. The word “abalone” probably means…………….
  12. a kind of octopus
  13. a kind of fish
  14. alone
  15. crab

 

  1. Paragraph 3 is mainly talking about the ……………………..of octopuses.

a food

  1. risk
  2. poison
  3. water
  4. The passage gives information about——————–
  5. the best places to find octopuses.
  6. What octopuses look like?
  7. How many octopuses live in the ocean?
  8. Why octopuses are strong creatures.

Passage Oil Field 22

  1. Shaybah Oil Field is a major crude oil production site in Saudi Arabia, located approximately 40 kilometres from the northern edge of the Rub’ Al-Khali (“Empty Quarter”) desert. It is about 10 kilometres south of the border to Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, which is a straight line drawn in the desert.
  2. Shaybah was developed for the purposes of exploiting the Shaybah oilfield. It was established by Saudi Aramco during the 1990s, and, prior to this, only the rough roads used by early exploration teams existed in this isolated desert region. All materials for the establishment and construction of Shaybah were transported the 800 kilometresfrom Dhahran to Shaybah by road.
  3. Shaybah has housing facilities for 1,000 men, administrative offices, an airstrip, a fire station, recreation areas, maintenance and support workshops, and power stations for generation and distribution. There is a 650-kilometer fibre optic cable linking Shaybah to the main radio system at Abqaiq.
  4. When established, the Shaybah oilfield had estimated reserves of over 14 billion barrels of crude oil and 25 trillion cubic feet of gas. Saudi Aramco brought the project on-stream in 1998. The crude is Arabian extra light, a high-quality crude grade. The oil reservoir is found at a depth of 1,494 meters and is itself 122 meters thick. The oil pipeline from the Shaybah field to Abqaiq is 638 miles (1,027 km) long.
  5. As of January 2007, Saudi Arabia’s proven reserves were estimated at 259.9 billion barrels, comprising about 24% of the world total.They would last for 90 years at the current rate of production. 85% of Saudi oil fields found have not produced oil yet.
  6. However the Ghawar oil field is the largest oil field in the world, holding over 70 billion barrels. Ghawar is able to produce 5 million barrels per day of oil. Aramco announced 100 thousand barrels per day expansion and integration with neighboring petrochemical plants in RasTanura and Yanbu by 2010 to 2012.

1-D 2-A 3-A 4-C 5-B

Questions

  1. What is the main idea of the 1st paragraph?
  2. Importance of Shaybah Oil Field to Saudi Aramco
  3. Where Shaybah Oil Field is located
  4. Why Saudi Aramco discovered the Shaybah Oil Field
  5. The weather in the Shaybah Oil Field area.

2.The underlined pronoun it in paragraph 2 refers to……………

  1. Shaybah
  2. Saudi Aramco.
  3. 1990
  4. Shaybah oilfield

3.How far is it from Dhahran to Shaybah Oil Field?

  1. 800 km.
  2. 1000 km
  3. 650 km
  4. 638 km
  5. If we compare the reserves of oil in the oilfields of Shayba and Ghawar, we notice that…………………………
  6. Shaybah oilfield has more reserves than Ghawar.
  7. Shaybah and Ghawar oil fields have little oil.
  8. Ghawar oilfield has more reserves of oil than Shayba
  9. Shaybah and Ghawar oil fields have the same reserves
  10. According to paragraph 6, Saudi Arabia has about———- of the world oil reserves.
  11. Half
  12. Quarter
  13. One-fifth
  14. One- third

— — — — — — — — —

Passage noodles 23 –

Ramen noodles might be best known in the U.S. as a cheap staple for college students, but the history of the noodles-and-broth dish pre-dates the instant grocery store version. Countless variations of ramen noodles exist in Japan–many served in restaurants, where the wheat-flour noodles are made fresh and served with a variety of broths and toppings. The inexpensive meal in a bowl is the national dish of Japan.

قد تكون أشهى المعكرونة رامين في الولايات المتحدة باعتبارها الركيزة الرخيصة لطلاب الجامعات، ولكن تاريخ طبق المعكرونة والمرق ما قبل تواجد النسخة البقالة الفورية. هناك عدد لا يحصى من أشكال المعكرونة رامين موجودة في اليابان – خدم العديد منهم في المطاعم، حيث يتم تصنيع المكرونة طحين القمح الطازجة وتقدم مع مجموعة متنوعة من مرق والطبقة. وجبة غير مكلفة في وعاء هو الطبق الوطني لليابان.

Each bowl of ramen—essentially a large, deep bowl of noodle soup—includes a hefty(large) portion of chewy noodles, broth made usually from soy sauce but sometimes with miso or pork stock, and toppings such as egg, fish cake, mushrooms, scallion, ginger, sprouts or other meat or vegetables.

كل وعاء من رامين — أساسا وعاء عميق كبير من حساء المعكرونة — يتضمن ضخمة (كبيرة) جزء من الشعرية والمطاطية، مرق مصنوعة عادة من صلصة الصويا ولكن في بعض الأحيان مع ميسو أو لحم الخنزير الأسهم، والطبقة مثل البيض، كعكة السمك، الفطر، البصل الأخضر، الزنجبيل، براعم أو غيرها من اللحوم أو الخضروات.

Ramen is eaten noodles first. Then people eat the broth with a large, flat-bottomed spoon. Some people add pepper flakes or hot sauce to the bowl while eating.

يؤكل رامين الشعرية أولا. ثم يأكل الناس المرق مع ملعقة كبيرة مسطحة القاع. يضيف بعض الناس رقائق الفلفل أو الصلصة الحارة إلى الوعاء أثناء تناول الطعام.

Most histories trace the origins of ramen noodles to China. The Japanese adopted the the Chinese word ,” a version oframendish in the 19th century and started calling it “for the noodles. Ramen noodles were time-consuming to make, expensive and something of a delicacy until the mid-20th century.

معظم تاريخ تتبع أصول رامين الشعرية إلى الصين. واعتمد اليابانيون الكلمة الصينية “نسخة من فرامنديش في القرن التاسع عشر وبدأوا يطلقونها” على المعكرونة. كانت رامين الشعرية تستغرق وقتا طويلا لجعل، مكلفة وشيء من حساسية حتى منتصف القرن 20th.

Because of its relatively cheap ingredients, ramen became a popular staple in post-WWII Japan. Eventually, it was voted the country’s national dish. Ramenyas, or noodles houses, sprouted throughout Japanese cities, and the style of broth or type of toppings varied among region. Ramen is also sold from street carts, in chain restaurants and even vending machines.

وبسبب مكوناتها الرخيصة نسبيا، أصبحت رامين مادة أساسية في اليابان بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية. في نهاية المطاف، تم التصويت عليه الطبق الوطني للبلاد. راميناس، أو المنازل الشعرية، انتشرت في جميع أنحاء المدن اليابانية، وأسلوب مرق أو نوع من الطبقة متنوعة في المنطقة. تباع رامين أيضا من عربات الشوارع، في سلسلة مطاعم وحتى آلات البيع.

In 1958, the owner of Japanese company Nissin Foods, Momofuku Ando, decided to produce instant noodles made by deep-frying ramen noodles. With the distinctive block of curly noodles and a flavor packet (shrimp, chicken, beef, etc.), instant ramen makes a salty but filling meal or snack. Noodles and a flavor packet are sold in cups or bowls, and are inexpensive when bought on sale or by the case. Nissin’s Top Ramen often costs less than 20 cents a packet. Add boiling water to the noodles to soften them, stir in the flavor packet, let the whole thing sit for a minute or two, then eat.

في عام 1958، قرر صاحب شركة يابانية نيسين فودز، موموفوكو أندو، إنتاج المكرونة سريعة التحضير التي أدلى بها المعكرونة رامين عميقة القلي. مع كتلة مميزة من المعكرونة مجعد وحزمة نكهة (الروبيان والدجاج ولحم البقر، وما إلى ذلك)، رامين لحظة يجعل المالحة ولكن ملء وجبة أو وجبة خفيفة. يتم بيع المعكرونة وحزمة نكهة في الكؤوس أو الأطباق، وغير مكلفة عند شراؤها على بيع أو من قبل القضية. وغالبا ما يكلف رامين أعلى نيسين أقل من 20 سنتا حزمة. إضافة الماء المغلي إلى الشعرية لتليين لهم، وإثارة في حزمة نكهة، والسماح للكل شيء الجلوس لمدة دقيقة أو اثنتين، ثم تناول الطعام.

Instant ramen’s popularity has grown beyond Japan and the U.S.; in southeast Asia and the Middle East, ramen comes in flavors like marsala, curry, cheese and tom yam. In the early 2000s, ramenyas, or traditional Japanese ramen restaurants, became popular in New York, Los Angeles, and European cities.

شعبية رامين الفورية نمت خارج اليابان والولايات المتحدة. في جنوب شرق آسيا والشرق الأوسط، يأتي رامين في نكهات مثل المرسلة والكاري والجبن وتوم اليام. في أوائل 2000s، رامينيس، أو التقليدية رامين المطاعم اليابانية، أصبحت شعبية في نيويورك، لوس انجليس، والمدن الأوروبية.

1-D /2-B/ 3- A/ 4-D/ 5- A

Questions

  1. Until the mid-20th century, Ramen noodles were:
  2. cheap for students
  3. not popular
  4. used by Japanese only
  5. expensive and take a long time to prepare
  6. The underlined word “ ramen” is:
  7. a Japanese word meaning broth
  8. a Chinese word meaning noodles
  9. an American word meaning cheese
  10. a European word meaning noodles houses
  11. The Japanese company Nissin Foods made ramen noodles:
  12. easy to prepare
  13. more expensive
  14. difficult to prepare
  15. have only shrimp and chicken
  16. Which of the following statements is false?
  17. Ramen noodles origin is China.
  18. Ramen noodles are eaten with different toppings.
  19. Momofuku Ando was the owner of the Nissin Food company.
  20. Instant ramen’s popularity has grown in many countries except the Middle East.
  21. The best title for the passage could be:
  22. Ramen Noodles: Development and Popularity
  23. Nissin Noodles Company
  24. How Noodles are Made
  25. How Noodles are Eaten

— — — — — — — — —

Passage personalities 24

.

Type A and Type B are two types of personalities .Some very prominent characteristics are seen in type A people and that is the reason why they are so easily identified. If you see someone freaking out because they are made to wait, even if the wait is for just couple of minutes, you have most probably encountered a type A person! People having a type A personality, are always in a hurry and impatience seems to be their middle name! Time urgency is seen clearly in their personality. They speak fast, they walk fast and are constantly aware of the running time.

Another peculiar type A personality trait is that they cannot tolerate slow speaking people and they usually end up completing sentences for them! Other special characteristics of type A personality people are that they get upset over small things easily and are also short tempered. When they get really angry, they can be very rude! So it is better not to provoke these ‘stress junkies’! They are rightly called ‘stress junkies’ for they get stressed out easily. They have high ambitions and they can overcome competition to achieve their goal. They also tend to compete with other people.

Type A people are said to have greater chances of suffering from hypertension and heart diseases. This is obviously because of their ‘stress junkie’ nature. So type A personalities need to calm down. Meditation and breathing exercises prove to be helpful for this personality type. This was about type A personality description. Now let’s take a look at type B personality.

There are some major differences between type A and B personality. The biggest difference is that type B personality people are always chilled out! They are mostly calm and composed, and in contrast to type A personalities, type B people are never in a hurry! They are the ones who will start talking when they are standing in a line, and by the time their turn comes, they will have made friends. They will always be thinking about others’ problems and always lend a helping hand. They are equally hardworking as type A personalities, but they do not mind losing. So you won’t have competition from a type B in office! They also do not get stressed easily and if ever they become stressed they usually become more productive. This is one of the biggest differences between type A and B personality. Type A tends to get destructive while type B tend to get productive.

هناك بعض الاختلافات الرئيسية بين النوع (أ) و (ب). أكبر الفرق هو أن نوع B شخصية الناس دائما المبردة بها! هم في الغالب الهدوء والمؤلفة، وعلى النقيض من شخصيات نوع A، نوع B الناس أبدا في عجلة من امرنا! هم أولئك الذين سيبدأون الحديث عندما يقفون في خط، وبحلول الوقت الذي يأتي بدوره، فإنها سوف تكون صداقات. وسوف يكون دائما التفكير في مشاكل الآخرين ودائما تقديم يد العون. هم على قدم المساواة المجتهد شخصيات نوع A، لكنها لا تمانع في فقدان. لذلك لن يكون لديك منافسة من نوع B في المكتب! كما أنهم لا يحصلون على التشديد بسهولة، وإذا أصبحوا في أي وقت من الأوقات أكدوا أنهم عادة ما تصبح أكثر إنتاجية. هذا هو واحد من أكبر الاختلافات بين نوع A و B الشخصية. النوع (أ) يميل للحصول على مدمرة في حين أن النوع (ب) يميل إلى الحصول على إنتاجية.

Because of their happy-go-lucky nature, type B personalities do not face much of health problems. Speaking about sports, type A and type B personality in sports are quite different from each other as their unique qualities reflect in their game also. Type A are perfectionists so they always aim to win and can also be dominating. On the other hand, type B personalities are relaxed and they play for entertainment rather than for winning.

بسبب طبيعتهم سعيدة الحظ، نوع الشخصيات ب لا تواجه الكثير من المشاكل الصحية. يتحدث عن الرياضة، نوع A ونوع B شخصية في الألعاب الرياضية مختلفة تماما عن بعضها البعض كما تعكس الصفات الفريدة في اللعبة أيضا. النوع (أ) هم من الكماليين، لذلك هم دائما يهدفون إلى الفوز ويمكن أن يكونوا أيضا مهيمنين. ومن ناحية أخرى، فإن شخصيات النوع باء ترتاح وتؤدي للترفيه بدلا من الفوز.

1-C /2-A/ 3-B/ 4-C/ 5- B

Questions

1.Paragraph 1 is talking about the characteristics of :

  1. Personality A & Personality B
  2. Personality B only
  3. Personality A only
  4. Impatience and Time urgency
  5. Type A personality people might suffer from :
  6. high blood pressure
  7. cancer
  8. meditation
  9. breathing
  10. The underlined word “ chilled out” most probably means:
  11. angry
  12. calm
  13. stressed
  14. impatient

5-Your friend is a Personality B student. He studied hard for the TOEFL Test. However, he failed. What might be his reaction?

  1. He might have a heart disease
  2. His blood pressure will go up
  3. He doesn’t mind
  4. He might get stressed
  5. One major difference between Personality A and personality B is:
  6. When personality A persons become stressed they produce more
  7. When personality B persons become stressed they become more productive
  8. Type A are hardworking, but Type B are not.
  9. Type A are relaxed ,but type B are not

— — — — — — — — —

Passage muhammad-ali 25

Muhammad Ali’s biography tells important facts about Ali’s life and what he went through. One thing this story talks about is Muhammad Ali’s accomplishments in and out of the boxing ring and how they have earned him a place in history as an inspiring hero to look up to.

سيرة محمد علي تحكي حقائق هامة عن حياة علي وما مر به. شيء واحد هذه القصة يتحدث عن انجازات محمد علي داخل وخارج حلقة الملاكمة وكيف أنها قد كسبته مكانا في التاريخ كبطل ملهم للبحث عن.

Muhammad Ali lived a great life both inspiring and exciting, but he had struggles too just like everyone else in the world. This story didn’t have many characters, but there were some and they all were a part of Muhammad Ali’s life

عاش محمد علي حياة عظيمة ملهمة ومثيرة، لكنه كان يكافح تماما مثل أي شخص آخر في العالم. هذه القصة لم يكن لها العديد من الشخصيات، ولكن كانت هناك بعض وكانوا جميعا جزءا من حياة محمد علي

His real name was Cassius Marcellus Clay, and with that name he won a gold medal in the 1960 Olympics and then claimed his first title by defeating Sonny Liston in 1964 and then joined the nation of Islam and changed his name to Muhammad Ali. He was the all time heavyweight boxing fighter, champion, of the 1960’s and 1970’s.

وكان اسمه الحقيقي كاسيوس مارسيلوس كلاي، وبهذا الاسم حصل على الميدالية الذهبية في دورة الالعاب الاولمبية عام 1960 ثم ادعى اول لقب له بفوزه سوني ليستون في عام 1964 ثم انضم الى امة الاسلام وغير اسمه الى محمد علي. وكان كل الوقت مقاتلة الملاكمة الوزن الثقيل، بطل، من 1960 و 1970.

He refused to join the military during the Vietnam War, so he was sentenced five years in prison, but the Supreme Court reversed it in 1971. Ali suffered Parkinson’s disease during his retirement, and it was sad, but then he got inducted into the boxing hall of fame in 1990 which must have cheered him up.

ورفض الانضمام إلى الجيش خلال حرب فيتنام، لذلك حكم عليه بالسجن لمدة خمس سنوات، ولكن المحكمة العليا عكس ذلك في عام 1971. عانى علي مرض باركنسون خلال تقاعده، وكان حزينا، ولكن بعد ذلك تم إدخاله في الملاكمة قاعة الشهرة في عام 1990 التي يجب أن يكون لهل له.

 

1-A /2-D /3-B /4- C /5-B/ 6-A

Questions

  1. The underlined word biography in the 1st paragraph probably means:
  2. Life story
  3. boxing ring
  4. facts
  5. importance
  6. Before he became a Moslem, Mohammad Ali was called:
  7. Parkinson
  8. Marcellus
  9. Liston
  10. Cassius
  11. Mohammad Ali became the world’s champion in heavyweight boxing in…….
  12. the Olympics in 1960
  13. 1964
  14. 1971
  15. 1990
  16. One of the following events didn’t take place in 1960’s:
  17. Mohammad Ali became a Moslem
  18. There was a war between America and Vietnam
  19. Mohammad Ali suffered from Parkinson disease
  20. The Olympics games were held
  21. Mohammad Ali was sentenced to be put in prison because:
  22. He defeated Liston in 1964
  23. He refused to participate in the Vietnam War
  24. He became a Moslem
  25. He entered the boxing hall of fame
  26. A good title for this passage can be:
  27. Clay’s Life Story
  28. How Mohammad Ali became Moslem
  29. Boxing
  30. Olympics

Passage thomas-edison 26

  1. In school, the young Edison’s mind often wandered, and his teacher was overheard calling him “addled”(confused).This ended Edison’s three months of official schooling. Edison recalled later, “My mother was the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me; and I felt I had something to live for, someone I must not disappoint.” His mother taught him at home. Much of his education came from reading R.G. Parker’s School of Natural Philosophy and The Cooper Union.
  1. Edison developed hearing problems at an early age. The cause of his deafness has been attributed to a short time of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle-ear infections. Edison sold candy and newspapers on trains, and sold vegetables to supplement his income. He also studied qualitative analysis, and conducted chemical experiments on the train until an accident prohibited further work of the kind. In 1866, at the age of 19, Edison moved to Louisville, Kentucky, where, as an employee of Western Union, he worked the Associated Press bureau news wire. Edison requested the night shift, which allowed him plenty of time to spend at his two favorite pastimes—reading and experimenting. Eventually, the latter pre-occupation cost him his job. One night in 1867, he was working with a lead–acid battery when he spilled sulfuric acid onto the floor. It ran between the floorboards and onto his boss’s desk below. The next morning Edison was fired.
  1. Thomas Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and because of that, he is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.
  2. Edison was a prolific inventor, holding 1,093 US patents براءة اختراع in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. More significant than the number of Edison’s patents, are the impacts of his inventions, because Edison not only invented things, his inventions established major new industries world-wide, notably, electric light and power utilities, sound recording and motion pictures. Edison’s inventions contributed to mass communication and, in particular, telecommunications. These included a stock ticker, a mechanical vote recorder, a battery for an electric car, electrical power, recorded music and motion pictures.
  3. Edison’s major innovation was the first industrial research lab, which was built in Menlo Park. (today named Edison in his honor). After his demonstration of the telegraph, Edison was not sure that his original plan to sell it for $4,000 to $5,000 was right, so he asked Western Union to make a bid. He was surprised to hear them offer $10,000 ($208400 in today’s dollars which he gratefully accepted. After many experiments, first with carbon filaments in the early 1880s and then with platinum and other metals, in the end Edison returned to a carbon filament (wire). The first successful test was on October 22, 1879; it lasted 13.5 hours. Edison continued to improve this design and by November 4, 1879, filed for U.S. patent 223,898 (granted on January 27, 1880) for an electric lamp using “a carbon filament or strip coiled and connected to platinum contact wires”.

1-A/ 2-D/ 3-C /4-B/ 5-C

Questions

  1. The main idea of paragraph 1 is—————–
  2. How Edison left school and got educated at home.
  3. How his teachers described him as a confused boy.
  4. Why Edison left school.
  5. How he disappointed his mother.
  6. The underlined word ” Latter” in paragraph 2 refers to————–
  7. reading
  8. eventually
  9. pastimes
  10. experimenting
  11. Edison ————————
  12. Lived and died in the 18th century.
  13. Lived in the 18th century and died in the 19th century.
  14. Lived in the 19th century and died in the 20th century.
  15. Lived and died in the 19th century.
  16. Paragraph 4 is mainly talking about…………………….
  17. the number of inventions Edition had patent for.
  18. Edison’s Inventions and how they established major new industries world-wide.
  19. how Edison invented electric light and power utilities, sound recording and motion pictures.
  20. how Edison’s inventions contributed to mass communication
  21. After his demonstration of the telegraph, Edison had an offer of———
  22. 4000$
  23. 5000$
  24. 10,000$
  25. 1880 $

— — — — — — — — —

Passage mountains 27

A mountain is a natural rise of the Earth’s surface that usually has a “summit” (or “top”). It is usually steeper and taller than a hill. Mountains are often thought of as being a hill of over 600 meters (about 2,000 feet).Mountains are important to life on Earth, because most rivers begin in mountains and carry water from the mountains down to the sea.

The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above mean sea level. The highest known mountain in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on the planet Mars at 21,171 m (69,459 ft).

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Mountains cover one-fifth of the earth’s land surface, and occur in 75 % of the world’s countries. Mountains cover 64% of Asia, 25% of Europe, 22% of South America, 17% of Australia, and 3% of Africa. Most of the world’s rivers are fed from mountain sources, and more than half of humanity depends on mountains for water.

Mountains are generally less preferable for human habitation than lowlands; the weather is often harsher, and there is little level ground suitable for agriculture. The decreasing atmospheric pressure means that less oxygen is available for breathing, and there is less protection against solar radiation (UV). Acute mountain sickness (caused by hypoxia—a lack of oxygen in the blood) affects over half of lowlanders who spend more than a few hours above 3,500 meters (11,480 ft).

However, a valley is an area of extended lowland, typically surrounded by much higher hills or mountains. It is one of many geological features that make up the surface of the Earth, and it is of special interest and importance to humans, thanks to the fact that valleys have a number of uses. This landform is also quite abundant.

Some geologists break up valleys by type on the basis of how they are formed. A rift valley is formed through separation of the Earth’s crust, caused by violent earth movements; a notable example is the Great Rift Valley in Africa. A glacial valley is on that has been formed by a glacier; they are especially common in Europe and have a distinctive U-shaped profile when viewed in cross-section. River valleys are formed through the slow process of erosion by water over the course of centuries, and they typically have a V-shaped profile.

Unlike a canyon, a valley is broad, with a large area of floor, rather than a narrow profile. Valleys are generally easy to navigate, and they tend to have a different climate than the surrounding area. It is also common for them to have rich deposits of alluvial mud, making these areas ideal for agriculture. As a result, many human civilizations have settled in valleys, taking advantage of the rivers which often wind through them as a source of water.

 

 

1-C 2-B 3- C 4- D 5- B 6-A

Questions

  1. Paragraph 2 is mainly talking about:
  2. Mount Everest
  3. Olympus Mons
  4. The highest mountains
  5. The solar system
  6. How much do mountains cover of land surface?
  7. 75%
  8. 20%
  9. 3%
  10. 64%
  11. People don’t prefer to live in mountainous areas because ………..
  12. Mountains are good for agriculture.
  13. There is a high percentage of oxygen
  14. There are mountain sicknesses like hypoxia
  15. There is more protection against Ultra Violet Ray
  16. The underlined word hypoxia probably means:
  17. Solar radiation
  18. Breathing

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  1. Lowlanders
  2. Little oxygen in blood
  3. The writer talked about———— types of valleys.
  4. 2
  5. 3
  6. 4
  7. 5
  8. Which of the following statements is TRUE about valleys?
  9. Valleys are good for agriculture
  10. Valleys aren’t generally easy to navigate
  11. Valleys had just a few civilizations
  12. Valleys have a narrow profile

Passage World War II 28

Read the following passage carefully and then answer the questions that follow.

World War II occurred during the years 1939 – 1945. It was a war that involved virtually every part of the world and cost the most deaths ever.

The origin of the war can be traced back to 1933 when Adolf Hitler became the leader of Germany. He at once began secretly preparing the German army to be a military super power. Germany had suffered a humiliating defeat during World War I (1914 – 1918) and Hitler wished for revenge. His ambition was to cross German frontiers with the hop of restoring the once mighty German empire.

In September 1939, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, Germany invaded Poland. Two days later Britain and France came to Poland’s rescue and declared war against Germany. Then,Russia, an ally of Germany, attacked Poland from the other side of the Polish border. Within a month, Poland fell into the hands of the Germans and the Russians.

The leaders of Italy and Japan also wanted to expand their empires. The leaders of the two countries signed a treaty with Hitler promising to help one another with their expansion plans. The group called themselves the Axis.

After the fall of Poland, Germany embarked on an attacking spree and defeated Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium and France. All these countries were conquered within a span of a few months. The threat of the vast combined German army, navy and air force, also enabled Hitler to occupy Austria and Czechoslovakia without any blood-bath. Adolf Hitler then became the supreme ruler of almost the whole of Central and Western Europe.

Still hungering for more conquests, Hitler turned his attention to Britain. Land invasion of the nation was impossible because of the English Channel. So the German air force tried to bomb Britain into submission but was defeated by the Royal Air Force in the Battle of Britain.

In the meantime, some countries on the side of the British had joined hands to form the Allies. In June 1941, Hitler turned on Russia and this made the Russians join the Allies. In 1943, the Allied forces won a major victory over German troops in North Africa. The Russians too were able to force the Germans to retreat from Russia. Though weakened considerable, the German troops still continued in fighting. The eventual occupation of Germany by the Allied troops between March – April 1945 finally brought the fighting in Europe to a stop. Hitler committed suicide on 30 April 1945. Eight days later, the German troops surrendered.

But World war II was not over yet. The war had spread to South-Western Asia in 1941 when Japan attacked an American naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This caused the Americans to team up with the Allies in the war in the Pacific region. The bombings of the Japanese towns of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 by the Americans when tens of thousands of people were killed or wounded for life signaled the close of World War II. The Japanese signed the formal surrender on 2 September 1945.

1-B 2- A 3- D 4-A 5-A

Questions

  1. How long did World War II last?
  2. a) 5 years
  3. b) 6 years
  4. c) 7 years
  5. d) 3 years
  6. The word frontiers in paragraph 2 probably means—————–
  7. a) Borders
  8. b) Revenge
  9. c) Ambition
  10. d) Empire
  11. The Axis group included the following countries—————-
  12. a) Germany, Italy and Poland
  13. b) Italy, Japan and Britain
  14. c) Britain, USA and Japan
  15. d) Germany, Italy and Japan
  16. It was impossible for Germany to invade Britain by land because ———
  17. a) of the English Channel.
  18. b) Airstrikes were more effective
  19. c) Hitler doesn’t like land invasion
  20. d) Land invasion was costly
  21. The main idea of the last paragraph is——————–
  22. a) How America defeated Japan after bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  23. b) How America teamed up with the Allies in the war.
  24. c) How Japan defeated America in Hawaii.
  25. d) How the Allies helped America defeat Japan.

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— — — — — — — — —

Passage potato 29

We all know that French fries aren’t really French, so why do we call them as such? Do you know?

In America, most forms of sliced potato which is then cooked by almost any method are called… a French fry.

Other parts of the world, most notably Europe, the term French fry is used only to describe the thinly sliced style of fries. The thicker cut fries (or as some may know them as steak fries) are typically called chips, which are pan fried in a skillet.

In French, ‘frite’ is used to denote the process of deep frying a food, but in America when we say ‘fried’ it can mean anything from pan frying to sautéing or even full out deep frying. So by adding the word French before our fry it denotes what type of fried potato product we’re actually talking about. Skinny and deep fried vs. fat and pan fried.

French fries are served hot and generally eaten as an supplement with lunch or dinner, or eaten as a snack, and they are a common fixture of fast food. French fries are generally salted, and in their simplest and most common form, are served with ketchup, though in many countries they are topped instead with other things, including vinegar, mayonnaise, or other local specialties. Sometimes fries are made with sweet potatoes instead of potatoes, are baked instead of fried, or are cut into unusual shapes, as is the case with curly fries, wavy fries or tornado fries.

Thomas Jefferson had “potatoes served in the French manner” at a White House dinner in 1802. The expression “French Fried Potatoes” first occurs in print in English in the 1856 work Cookery for Maids of All Work by E. Warren: “French Fried Potatoes. – Cut new potatoes in thin slices, put them in boiling fat, and a little salt; fry both sides of a light golden brown color; drain.” In the early 20th century, the term “French fried” was being used in the sense of “deep-fried”, for other foods such as onion rings or chicken.

1-A 2-C 3- A 4-C 5-B

Questions

  1. The main idea of paragraph two is:
  2. French fry means differently from country to another ,especially America and Europe
  3. French fry comes from France
  4. French fry means sliced potatoes
  5. French fries and chips are the same in meaning
  6. The French word frite in paragraph 4 most probably means:
  7. potatoes
  8. fried potatoes
  9. food deep frying
  10. pan potatoes
  11. Chips in Europe are:
  12. thick cut fries
  13. thin sliced fries

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  1. are only potatoes
  2. French potatoes
  3. The pronoun “they’ in paragraph 5 refers to:
  4. Vinegar and mayonnaise
  5. other things
  6. French fries
  7. ketchup and chips
  8. We can infer from the last paragraph that Thomas Jefferson was:
  9. was a famous writer
  10. was the president of America
  11. lived in the 20th century
  12. a French president

— — — — — — — — —

Passage Ibn Sina 30

I           bn Sina was born in AH 370/AD 980 near Bukhara in Central Asia, where his father governed a village in one of the royal estates. At thirteen, Ibn Sina began a study of medicine that resulted in ‘distinguished physicians . . . reading the science of medicine under him’. His medical expertise brought him to the attention of the Sultan of Bukhara, Nuh ibn Mansur, whom he treated successfully; as a result he was given permission to use the sultan’s library and its rare manuscripts, allowing him to continue his research into modes of knowledge.

When the sultan died, the heir to the throne, ‘Ali ibn Shams al-Dawla, asked Ibn Sina to continue al vizier, but the philosopher was negotiating to join the forces of another son of the late king, Ala al-Dawla, and so went into hiding.

During this time he composed his major philosophical research paper, Kitab al-shifa’ (Book of Healing), a comprehensive account of learning that ranges from logic and mathematics to metaphysics and the afterlife. While he was writing the section on logic, Ibn Sina was arrested and imprisoned, but he escaped to Isfahan, disguised as a Sufi, and joined Ala al-Dawla. While in the service of the latter, he completed al-Shifa’ and produced the Kitab al-najat (Book of Salvation), an abridgment of al-Shifa’. He also produced at least two major works on logic: one, al-Mantiq, translated as The Propositional Logic of Ibn Sina, was a commentary on Aristotle’s Prior Analytics and forms part of al-Shifa’; the other, al-Isharat wa-‘I-tanbihat (Remarks and Admonitions), seems to be written in the ‘indicative mode’, where the reader must participate by working out the steps leading from the stated premises to proposed conclusions.

He also produced a research paper on definitions and a summary of the theoretical sciences, together with a number of psychological, religious and other works; the latter include works on astronomy, medicine, philology and zoology, as well as poems and an allegorical work, Hayy ibn Yaqzan (The Living Son of the Vigilant). His biographer also mentions numerous short works on logic and metaphysics, and a book on ‘Fair Judgment’ that was lost when his prince’s fortunes suffered a turn. Ibn Sina’s philosophical and medical work and his political involvement continued until his death.

1-A 2-D 3-C 4-A 5-A 6-A

Questions

  1. Physicians in Paragraph two most probably means————–
  2. doctors
  3. philosophers
  4. Sultans
  5. sons
  6. The one that Ibn Sina treated was ————————–
  7. His father
  8. Ala Al-Dawla
  9. Ali Ibn Shams Al-Dawla
  10. Nuh ibn Mansour
  11. The underlined pronoun its in paragraph 1 refers to—————–
  12. Ibn Sina
  13. Sultan of Bukhara
  14. Sultan’s library
  15. Manuscripts
  16. We can infer from the passage that Ali Inn Shams Al-Dawla and Ala Al-Dawla were:
  17. Brothers
  18. Cousins
  19. kings
  20. not relatives
  21. One of these was not covered in the Ibn Sina book called “Book of Healing”:
  22. Medicine
  23. Mathematics
  24. Religion
  25. Logic
  26. The main idea of the passage is:
  27. Ibn Sina was a great scientist of medicine, philosophy and religion
  28. The Sultan of Bukhara was successfully treated by Ibn Sina
  29. Ibn Sina was a Moslem, but not an Arab
  30. Ibn Sina was a philosopher

Passage planet Mars 11

  1. The U.S. space program run by NASA began exploring the planet Mars in the 1960. There is a great deal of scientific interest in Mars because it is next to Earth in the solar system. Earth is the third planet from the Sun, while Mars is the fourth planet in the solar system. Mars has two small moons. Mars, commonly, referred to as “the red planet” because it appears a reddish-orange or rust color. Its reddish color comes from the high amounts of iron oxide on its surface
  1. Like the Earth, Mars revolves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit. This oval orbit of Mars is more stretched out than the oval orbit of Earth. It takes Mars 687 Earth days to make one revolution around the Sun. One year on Mars is equal to almost two years on Earth. One day on Mars is about 24.5 hours long
  1. Mars has a thin atmosphere that contains about half as much oxygen as Earth’s atmosphere and most of its atmosphere is made up of carbon dioxide. Sometimes Mars has thin clouds made of frozen carbon dioxide and can also have fog and haze. The surface of Mars is extremely cold, hundreds of degrees F below zero.
  1. There has long been speculation concerning the possibility of life and or liquid water on Mars. However, the planet’s thin atmosphere prevents water from accumulating for any time. Strong solar winds and poor heat transfer across its surface would make sustained life virtually impossible.

1-A 2-D 3-C 4-B 5-A 6-D 7-C

Questions

  1. Mars has……………….
  2. more moons than the Earth
  3. fewer moons than the Earth
  4. The same number of moons of the Earth
  5. No moon at all
  6. Mars is called the “Red Planet” because…………….
  7. It is like a reddish-orange
  8. It is like the rust color
  9. It has high amounts of iron oxide on its surface.
  10. All are correct
  11. The underlined word “elliptical” in paragraph 2 probably means……
  12. Orbit
  13. Stretched
  14. Oval
  15. Revolution www.dalilk4step.com 5
  1. Salem who is living on the Earth is 70 years old. How old would he be if he were living on Mars?
  2. 70 years
  3. 35 years
  4. 50 years
  5. 140 years
  6. How long is the day on Mars?
  7. Almost the same as the day on the Earth
  8. Much longer than the day on the Earth
  9. Much shorter than the day on the Earth
  10. 49 hours
  11. Paragraph is mainly talking about…………….
  12. Fog and haze on mars
  13. Oxygen in the Mars atmosphere
  14. Carbon dioxide in the Mars atmosphere
  15. The atmosphere and climate on Mars

Passage Bermuda Triangle 12

  1. The legend of the mysterious Bermuda Triangle is one of the strangest of all sea stories. The Bermuda Triangle is a section of the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern coast of Florida. A line drawn from Florida to Bermuda, then to Puerto Rico and back to Florida, forms a rough triangle. Within this triangle, or very near it, more than fifty ships and airplanes have vanished or disappeared.
  1. The legend began in 1945, when five American Navy bombers vanished while flying over the area. They were flying during the day, under clear weather conditions. The commander of the five planes was talking to his base by radio. He announced that they seemed to be lost. After that, the planes were never heard from again. A search plane was sent out to find the five. It too disappeared.
  1. In 1948, an airliner flying toward Miami vanished over the Triangle. A few months later, another plane disappeared. In 1950, still another airplane flew into the Triangle, never to be seen again. A ship named The Sandra sailed into the triangle and vanished. In 1953, another ship, sailing north of the Triangle, sent out distress signals that were suddenly cut off. Ships and planes were sent to search for the ship, but they never found it.

4- There have been many explanations for these mysterious happenings.Some people believe that there is a strange force at work in this part of the ocean. Some suggest there may be some kinds of `hole’ in the triangle that ships and planes go through into another world. Others think that UFO’s steal the planes, ships, and their crews, and take them away.

  1. Some people don’t believe that there is anything extraordinary about the Bermuda Triangle. Thousands of ships and airplanes have passed through the Triangle without encountering trouble. The Triangle isn’t

6  the only place where ships and planes have vanished. Many ships have vanished all over the world’s oceans. Many reasons exist for such things happening, such as sudden storms or seaquakes. These are just some of the dangers of going to sea. The Bermuda Triangle just happens to be a part of the sea where there have been many disasters. Whatever the reasons for these strange happenings, the legend of the Bermuda Triangle remains the strangest of all sea tales.

 

1-A 2-B 3-C 4-A 5-B 6-A 7-D

Questions

  1. Paragraph 1 is mainly talking ………………………..
  2. about the location of Bermuda Triangle
  3. why Bermuda Triangle is mysterious
  4. why Bermuda Triangle is a legend
  5. about ships and airplanes
  6. The underlined word “bombers” in paragraph 2 probably means…………
  7. ships
  8. airplanes
  9. conditions
  10. stories3.
  11. According to Paragraph 2, the total number of the American airplanes that disappeared in 1945 in Bermuda Triangle

was…………….

  1. 5
  2. 4
  3. 6
  4. 7
  5. The pronoun ” it” in paragraph 2 refers to………………
  6. The search plane
  7. 1945
  8. The five bombers
  9. Radio
  10. Paragraph 3 is mainly talking about the …………………….
  11. why the ships and airplanes disappeared in Bermuda Triangle
  12. the number of the ships and airplanes which disappeared in Bermuda Triangle
  13. how ships and airplanes disappear in Bermuda Triangle
  14. the ships and planes which were sent to search for the lost ones
  15. The main idea of Paragraph 4 is……………………
  16. giving explanations why ships and airplanes disappear in Bermuda Triangle
  17. there is a strange force at work in this part of the ocean
  18. there may be some kinds of `hole’ in the Triangle
  19. UFO’s steal the planes, ships, and their crews, and take them away
  20. In the last paragraph, we see some people who………………….
  21. don’t think that Bermuda Triangle is an extraordinary place
  22. believe that Bermuda Triangle is the most dangerous place in the world
  23. believe that thousands of ships and airplanes have passed through the Triangle without encountering trouble
  24. (A+C)

 

Passage dictionaries 13

.

What is a dictionary? A dictionary is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically with usage of information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, translation, and other information; or a book of words in one language with their meanings in another.

The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian Empire with bilingual Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla (modern Syria) and dated roughly 2300 BCE. The early 2nd millennium BCE glossary is the Babylonian version of such bilingual Sumerian wordlists. A Chinese dictionary, the 3rd century BCE Erya, was the earliest surviving monolingual dictionary.

Why use a dictionary?

Using a dictionary will help you

  • understand the learning material and your assignment questions. This is very important because if you misinterpret even one word in an assignment, you risk getting the answer wrong.
  • choose the most appropriate words so that your writing is clear, interesting and reads well.
  • use words correctly so that you say what you mean and your writing is easy to understand.
  • spell words correctly – incorrect spelling may be penalized in assignments, and it certainly gives a bad impression.
  • build your vocabulary – looking up a word not only helps you understand and use that word but the process of looking it up helps fix the word in your memory.

Things to think about when choosing and using a dictionary

Choose a dictionary that’s fit for purpose There are a number of different kinds of dictionaries depending on the word you’re looking up and what you want to know about it.

Choose from:

  • Monolingual (one language), or explanatory dictionaries, e.g. English-English dictionaries.
  • Bilingual (two languages) dictionaries, e.g. English – Arabic / Arabic – English.
  • Specialized dictionaries, e.g. dictionaries for specific subjects (such as maths, biology, commerce, IT, etc.), technical terms, abbreviations, idioms, quotations, slang or jargon, etc.
  • Thesauruses, i.e. dictionaries of synonyms (words with the same meaning) and antonyms (words with the opposite meaning).
  • Monolingual (one language), or explanatory dictionaries, e.g. English-English dictionaries.
  • Bilingual (two languages) dictionaries, e.g. English – Arabic / Arabic – English.
  • Specialized dictionaries, e.g. dictionaries for specific subjects (such as maths, biology, commerce, IT, etc.), technical terms, abbreviations, idioms, quotations, slang or jargon, etc.
  • Thesauruses, i.e. dictionaries of synonyms (words with the same meaning) and antonyms (words with the opposite meaning).

British vs. American English

New Zealand uses British English in preference to American English so choose a dictionary that uses British rather than American English (e.g. ‘colour’ and ‘lift’ rather than ‘color’ and ‘elevator’).

Make sure you know how to use your dictionaryAll dictionaries are slightly different so it’s worth spending a little time making sure you know how to use your dictionary.

 

2-B 3- D 4-C 5- D

Questions

  1. The main idea of paragraph 2 is………….
  2. History of dictionaries
  3. Types of dictionaries
  4. British dictionaries
  5. Chinese dictionaries
  6. 2. If you want to find the Arabic meaning of an English word, you can use a …………. dictionary
  7. monolingual
  8. bilingual
  9. specialized
  10. thesaurus
  11. “Antonyms” and “synonyms” can be found in …………………dictionaries.
  12. a monolingual
  13. bilingual
  14. specialized
  15. thesaurus www.dalilk4step.com 9

4.The spelling of words’colour’ and ‘lift’ shows the……………..spelling of both words.

  1. American
  2. American and British
  3. British
  4. New Zealand and American
  5. The passage is mainly talking about……………..
  6. History of dictionaries
  7. Kinds of dictionaries
  8. British and American dictionaries.
  9. The importance of dictionaries and how to use them.

———

Passage Hawaii islands 14

Hawaii is the most recent of the 50 U.S. states (joined the Union on August 21, 1959), and is the only U.S. state made up

entirely of islands. Hawaii’s diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches and oceanic surrounding, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists, and volcanologists alike.The chain of islands or archipelago formed as the Pacific plate moved slowly northwestward over a hotspot in the Earth’s mantle at about 32 miles (51 km) per million years .Hawaiʻi island is the biggest and youngest island in the chain, built from five volcanoes. Mauna Loa, comprising over half of the Big Island, is the largest shield

volcano on the Earth. The measurement from sea level to summit is more than 2.5 miles (4 km), from sea level to sea floor about 3.1 miles (5 km).

The Hawaiian Islands have many earthquakes, generally caused by volcanic activity. Most of the early earthquake monitoring took place in Hilo. From 1833 to 1896, approximately 4 or 5 earthquakes were reported per year.

Hawaii accounted for 7.3% of the United States’ reported earthquakes with a magnitude 3.5 or greater from 1974 to 2003, with a total 1533 earthquakes. Hawaii ranked as the state with the third most earthquakes over this time period, after Alaska and California. The Hawaiian Islands are subject to tsunamis, great waves that strike the shore. Tsunamis are most often caused by earthquakes somewhere in the Pacific. The waves produced by the earthquakes travel at speeds of 400–500 miles per hour (600–800 km/h) and can affect coastal regions thousands of miles (kilometers) away.

Tsunamis may also initiate in the Hawaiian Islands. Explosive volcanic activity can cause tsunamis. The island of Molokaʻi had a catastrophic collapse or debris avalanche over a million years ago; this underwater landslide likely caused tsunamis. The Hilina slump on the island of Hawaiʻi is another potential place for a large landslide and resulting tsunami.

The climate of the Hawaiian Islands is tropical, but it experiences

many different climates, depending on altitude and weather. The islands receive most rainfall from the trade winds on their north and east sides.

In general, the lowlands of Hawaiian Islands receive most of their rainfall during the winter months (October to April). Drier conditions generally prevail from May to September. The tropical storms, and occasional hurricanes, tend to occur from July through November.

 

1-A 2-A 3-C 4-D 5- A 6-B

Questions

  1. The underlined word “archipelago” in paragraph 1 probably means”:
  2. a) a group of islands
  3. b) Pacific plate
  4. c) northwestward
  5. d) hotspot
  6. The largest shield volcano on the Earth is called Mauna Loa and it is ——————high.
  7. a) 4 km
  8. b) 51 km
  9. c) 2.5 km
  10. d) 5km
  11. ——————– ranked as the state with the 2nd most earthquakes from 1974 to 2003.
  12. a) Hawaii
  13. b) Alaska
  14. c) California
  15. d) Texas
  16. The underlined word tsunamis probably means—————–:
  17. a) Volcanoes
  18. b) Earthquakes
  19. c) Climate
  20. d) Great waves
  21. Most tsunamis on the islands of Hawaii are caused by—————-
  22. a) Earthquakes
  23. b) Volcanoes
  24. c) Landslides
  25. d) Rainfall
  26. Rain may fall on Hawaii islands in —————–
  27. a) May and June
  28. b) December and January
  29. c) June and September
  30. d) May and August www.dalilk4step.com 11

Passage Ibn Battuta 15

.

  1. Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta, was a Moroccan Muslim scholar and traveler. He is known for his traveling and going on tours called the Rihla. His journeys lasted for a period of almost thirty years. This covered nearly the whole of the known Islamic world and beyond, extending from North Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessors. After his travel, he returned to Morocco and gave his account of the experience to Ibn Juzay.
  1. Ibn Battuta, was born in Tangier, Morocco, on the 24th of February 1304 C.E. (703 Hijra). He was commonly known as Shams ad-Din. His family was of Berber origin and had a tradition of service as judges. After receiving an education in Islamic law, he chose to travel. He left his house in June 1325, and set off from his hometown on a hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca, a journey that took him 16 months. He did not come back to Morocco for at least 24 years after that. His journey was mostly by land. To reduce the risk of being attacked, he usually chose to join a caravan. In the town of Sfax, he got married.
  1. He first began his voyage by exploring the lands of the Middle East. Thereafter he sailed down the Red Sea to Mecca. He crossed the huge Arabian Desert and traveled to Iraq and Iran. In 1330, he set off again, down the Red Sea to Aden and then to Tanzania. Then in 1332, Ibn Battuta decided to go to India. He was greeted open heartedly by the Sultan of Delhi. There he was given the job of a judge. He stayed in India for a period of 8 years and then left for China. Ibn Battuta left for another adventure in 1352. He then went south, crossed the Sahara desert, and visited the African kingdom of Mali. Finally, he returned home at Tangier in 1355

.

  1. After the completion of the Rihla in 1355, little is known about Ibn Battuta’s life. He was appointed a judge in Morocco and died in 1368.

1-B 2-A 3-B 4-D 5-B 6-A

Questions

  1. The main idea of paragraph 1 is—————–
  2. Ibn Battuta was Moroccan Muslim.
  3. Talking mainly about the places Ibn Battuta traveled to
  4. How Ibn Battuta returned to Morocco
  5. Ibn Battuta’s education
  6. Ibn Battuta was —————years old when he set off from his hometown on a hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca.
  7. 21
  8. 20
  9. 30
  10. 42 www.dalilk4step.com 12
  1. Ibn Battuta’s family were famous for their services as ————————
  2. travelers
  3. judges
  4. kings
  5. traders
  6. How old was Ibn Battuta when he died?
  7. 60 years
  8. 51 years
  9. 35 years
  10. 64 years
  11. Where did Ibn Battuta work as a judge?
  12. In China and Mecca
  13. In India and Morocco
  14. In India and China
  15. In Mecca and Morocco
  16. The underlined pronoun He in paragraph 3 refers to—————
  17. Ibn Battuta
  18. Sultan of India
  19. King of Mali
  20. Sultan of China

Passage Blogger 16

.

On August 23, 1999, Blogger was launched by Pyra Labs. As one of the earliest dedicated blog-publishing tools, it is credited for helping popularize the format. In February 2003, Pyra Labs was acquired by Google under undisclosed terms.

On May 9, 2004, Blogger introduced a major redesign, adding features such as web standards-compliant templates, individual archive

pages for posts, comments, and posting by email. On August 14, 2006, Blogger launched its latest version beta, codenamed

Invader“, alongside the gold release. This migrated users to Google servers and had some new features, including interface language in French, Italian, German and Spanish. In December 2006, this new version of Blogger was taken out of beta. By May 2007, Blogger had completely moved over to Google operated servers. Blogger was ranked 16 on the list of top 50 domains in terms of number of unique visitors in 2007.

As part of the Blogger redesign in 2006, all blogs associated with a user’s Google Account were migrated to Google servers. Blogger claims that the service is now more reliable because of the quality of the servers.

Along with the migration to Google servers, several new features were introduced, including label organization, a drag-and-drop template editing interface, reading permissions (to create private blogs) and new Web feed options. Furthermore, blogs are updated dynamically, as opposed to rewriting HTML files.

Blogger allows its users to choose from various templates available, and fully customize them. Users may also choose to create their own template using CSS. The new design template, known as Dynamic View, was introduced recently. It is built with AJAX, HTML5 and CSS3. The time for loading is 40 percent shorter than traditional templates, and allows user to present blog in seven different ways: classic, flipcard, magazine, mosaic, sidebar, snapshot, and timeslide

Blogger has launched mobile applications for users with mobile devices. Users can post and edit blogs, and also share photos and links on Blogger through their mobile devices. Not only advanced mobile devices, such as smart phones, are being considered, since users can also post blogs via traditional cell phones by SMS and MMS.

 

1-A 2-D 3-A 4-B 5-C 6-B

Questions

  1. Blogger was owned by Google————————.
  2. around 4 years after it was launched.
  3. in August 1999
  4. in May 2009
  5. around 2 years after it was launched
  6. “Invader” is ———————-
  7. a Google account
  8. a Google server
  9. a codename for an e-mail
  10. a new version of blogger
  11. Along with migration to Google servers, one of the following was not a new feature introduced to the blogger:
  12. Rewriting HTML files
  13. Organization of labels
  14. New Web feed options
  15. Blogs updated dynamically
  16. The underlined pronoun “ it” in paragraph 5 refers to:
  17. AJAX
  18. Dynamic View
  19. CSS
  20. HTML5
  21. Using Blogger mobile applications,——————-
  22. only users of smartphones can post blogs
  23. only users of traditional cell phones can post blogs
  24. both smartphone and traditional cell phone users can post blogs
  25. users found it difficult to share photos and links.
  26. The main idea of the passage is ——————————–
  27. The new features of blogger
  28. The development of blogger
  29. The advantages of using blogger
  30. New application of blogger on cell phones.


Passage animals sleep 17

.

Most humans sleep on a bed or a mat. Animals, however, have many different ways of sleeping. Some animals sleep in groups for warmth. Lions, monkeys and penguins are a few animals that sleep in groups.

Elephants sleep in groups for protection. Larger, older elephants make a circle around younger elephants. The young elephants get inside the circle and lie down and sleep. The larger elephants sleep standing up.

Some animals sleep in trees. Birds lock their feet onto branches to keep them from falling out of the trees. Other animals, like squirrels and baboons, sleep in nests that they build in trees. They curl up to keep warm. Bats hang upside down from tree branches to sleep.

Most animals look for warm, dry places to sleep, but ducks often sleep in water. Most animals lie down to sleep. However, some large animals, like horses, sleep standing up. Flamingos sleep standing on just one of their two legs.

. Nocturnal nocturnal Most animals sleep at night, but some animals are animals like bats sleep during day. They wake up when the sun goes down. Animals sleep in different places and different ways. But every animal must sleep.

 

1-A 2-D 3-D 4- A 5- B

Questions

  1. Examples of animals that sleep in groups to get warm are………….
  2. lions, penguins and monkeys
  3. elephants, lions and squirrels
  4. penguins, lions and elephants
  5. elephants, flamingos and monkeys
  6. 2. Examples of animals that sleep standing are……………….
  7. Bats and lions
  8. Flamingos and monkeys
  9. squirrels and baboons
  10. Horses and large elephants

3.Paragraph 3 is mainly talking about the animals that sleep ———

a during day

  1. for warmth
  2. for protection
  3. in trees
  4. The word “nocturnal” probably means…………….
  5. active at night
  6. active at day
  7. bats
  8. dry

www.dalilk4step.com 15

  1. The best title for the passage is……………..
  2. Why animals sleep
  3. How and where animals sleep
  4. What animals eat
  5. Nocturnal animals

Passage hijaamah 18

 

  1. The word 1. hijaamah (cupping) comes from the word hajm which means sucking. Hijaamah is the profession of cupping, and the word mihjam is used to describe the vessel or cup in which the blood is collected and the lancet used by the cupper to make a cut.)
  2. Cupping was known since ancient times. It was known to the Chinese, the Babylonians and the Pharaohs. Their ruins and carved images indicate that they used cupping to treat some diseases. At first they used metal cups, from which they would remove the air by sucking it out after placing the cup on the skin. Then they used glass cups from which they would remove the air by burning a piece of cotton or wool inside the cup.
  3. The earliest record of cupping is in the Ebbers Papyrus, one of the oldest medical textbooks in the world, describes in 1550 B.C. Egyptians used cupping. Archaeologists have found evidence in China of cupping dating back to 1000 B.C. In ancient Greece, Hippocrates (. 400 B.C.) used cupping for internal disease and structural problems. This method in multiple forms spread into medicine throughout Asian and European civilizations.
  4. Broadly speaking there are two types of cupping: dry cupping and bleeding or wet cupping (controlled bleeding) with wet cupping being more common. The British Cupping Society (BCS), an organization promoting the practice, teaches both. As a general rule, wet cupping provides a more “curative-treatment approach” to patient management whereas dry cupping appeals more to a “therapeutic and relaxation approach”. Preference varies with practitioners and cultures.
  5. While the history of wet cupping may date back thousands of years, the first documented uses are found in the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to Muhammad al-Bukhari, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) approved of the Hijama (cupping) treatment. A number of hadith support its recommendation and use by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). As a result, the practice of cupping therapy has survived in Muslim countries. Today, wet cupping is a popular remedy practiced in many parts of the Muslim world.
  6. With regard to the times when cupping is recommended as it was reported from Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

 “The best times to be treated with cupping are the seventeenth, nineteenth or twenty-first of the month.

 

1-C 2- A 3- B 4-A 5-B

Questions

  1. The underlined word ” lancet” in paragraph 1 most probably means:
  2. cupping b. vessel c. a sharp knife d. Hijamah
  3. Paragraph 2 is mainly talking about:
  4. how cupping was used in ancient times.
  5. how the Chinese used cupping.
  6. how metal cups were used
  7. how glass cups were used.
  8. The Ebers Papyrus is a medical book that described how —-used cupping.
  9. Chinese
  10. Egyptians
  11. Not only Chinese but also Egyptians
  12. Greece
  13. The main idea of paragraph 5 is:
  14. Recommendation and use of Cupping by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)
  15. Wet cupping is a popular remedy practiced in many parts of the Muslim world.
  16. The practice of cupping therapy has survived in Muslim countries.
  17. Al-Bukhari was a great man.
  18. It is not recommended to have cupping on the—————of the month.
  19. 17th
  20. 18th
  21. 19th
  22. 21st.

Passage King Faisal Prize 19

  1. King Faisal International Prize is an annual award sponsored by King Faisal Foundation presented to “dedicated men and women whose contributions make a positive difference”. The foundation awards prizes in the following categories: Service to Islam, Islamic studies, Arabic Language and Literature, Science, Medicine.
  2. The first King Faisal International Prize was awarded to Sayyid Abul A’ala Maududi in the year 1979 for his service to Islam. In 1981, King Khalid received the same award. In 1984, King Fahd was the

www.dalilk4step.com 17

recipient of the award. In 1986, this prize was co-awarded to Ahmed Deed at and French Holocaust denier Roger GAraud.

  1. Each year, the selection committees designate subjects in Islamic Studies, Arabic Literature, and Medicine. Selected topics in Islamic Studies category are aimed at highlighting areas of importance in Muslim societies. Arabic Literature topics relate to specialized areas within the discipline. Topics in Medicine are supposed to reflect current areas of international concern. The Science category covers a broad range of subcategories e.g. physics, mathematics, chemistry and biology.
  2. Islamic institutions, universities and previous winners of the King Faisal International Prize can nominate a person for the award. Nominations from ordinary individuals or political parties are not accepted. The nominee or nominated institution(s) must be known for their leading practical or intellectual role in the service of Islam and Muslims.
  3. Nominated works must be published, benefit mankind and enrich human knowledge. Winners of the Prize for category “Service to Islam” are chosen directly by the respective selection committee. For other Prize categories, pre-selection by peer reviewers is carried out, which is followed by scrutiny of the works of worthy nominees by selected referees of each discipline. Autonomous, international, specialist selection committees are then convened at the headquarters of King Faisal Foundation in Riyadh each January to make their final decisions.
  4. The prize in each of the five categories consists of:
  5. A hand written Diwanicalligraphy certificate, summarizing the laureate’s work.
  6. A commemorative 24 carat, 200 gram gold medal, uniquely cast for each prize.
  7. A cash endowment of SR 750,000 (US$ 200,000).

Co-winners in any category share the monetary grant. The Prizes are awarded during a ceremony in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, under the auspices of the King of Saudi Arabia.

  1. The five countries with most award-winners as of 2012 were:

1-A 2-B 3- C 4-B 5-D

Questions

  1. In how many fields is the King Faisal International Prize granted?
  2. a) 5
  3. b) 3
  4. c) 4
  5. d) 6
  6. Paragraph 2 is mainly taking about—————
  7. the categories of the prize
  8. the winners of the prize.
  9. King Khalid and King Fahad
  10. Ahmed Deedat and French Holocaust denier Roger Garaud
  11. Who can nominate a person for the King Faisal International Prize?
  12. Ordinary individuals
  13. Political parties
  14. Islamic institutions, universities and previous winners
  15. The King of Saudi Arabia only
  16. What does the prize consist of?
  17. Cash money and a gold medal
  18. Cash money, a gold medal and a certificate
  19. Only an achievement certificate
  20. Only a 24 carat, 200 gramgold medal
  21. As of 2012, the country which got the most award-winners was————-
  22. UK
  23. Germany
  24. Egypt
  25. USA

Passage The miswak 20

.

  1. The miswak is a teeth cleaning twig made from a twig of the Salvadora persica tree (known as arak in Arabic). A traditional alternative to the modern toothbrush, it has a long, well-documented history and is reputed for its medicinal benefits.
  2. A 2003 scientific study comparing the use of miswak with ordinary toothbrushes concluded that the results clearly were in favor of the users who had been using the miswak, provided they had been given proper instruction in how to brush using it. However, the study’s sample size was only fifteen people,

calling into question its statistical significance. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the use of the miswak in 1986 and in 2000 an international consensus report on oral hygiene concluded that further research was needed to document the effect of the miswak.

  1. Dr. Rami Mohammed Diabi,] who spent more than 17 years researching the effects of miswak on health, and especially its anti-addiction effects on smokers (curative and preventive sides), has opened a field of science and research with his last publication: “Miswak Medicine Theory” or Sewak Puncture medicine which led him to what is called Beyond Sewak: World of Science and Research. Miswak also is contributing in the fight against desertification thereby affecting our environment and global climate.
  2. The use of the miswak is frequently advocated in the hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Muhammad). Situations where the miswak is recommended to be used include, before religious practice, before entering one’s house, before and after going on a journey, on Fridays before sleeping and after waking up, when experiencing hunger or thirst and before entering any good gathering.
  3. In addition to strengthening the gums, preventing tooth decay and eliminating toothaches, the miswak is also said to stop further increase in decay that has already set in. Furthermore, it is said to create a fragrance in the mouth, eliminate bad breath, improve sensitivity of taste-buds and promote cleaner teeth.
  4. There is also toothpaste made from miswak extract that can be purchased in the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe and North America. Use of toothpastes featuring benefits of miswak is, however, not a true alternate practice of using miswak in its original shape and in the masnoon way. Some companies, such as Al Khair and AL Falah, have also taken the initiative to process and preserve miswak in vacuum bags. This has the effect of increasing the twig’s shelf life to a period of over six months.

 

1-B 2-B 3-A 4-C 5-B

Questions

  1. The results of more than 200 studies on miswak and ordinary toothbrushes proved that……………………
  2. toothbrushes are much better than miswak .
  3. miswak is much better than toothbrushes.
  4. they are the same in results.
  5. neither is good for teeth.
  6. The main idea of paragraph 3 is…………………….
  7. Dr. Rami Diabi spent 17 years in his research.
  8. The effects of miswak on health and environment.
  9. The World Health Organization
  10. The effects of Se miswak on smokers only.
  11. Paragraph 4 is talking about…………………..
  12. where and when miswak is recommended to be used.
  13. using miswak before saying prayers.
  14. using miswak on Fridays before sleeping and after waking up.
  15. using miswak when experiencing hunger or thirst.

www.dalilk4step.com 20

  1. The underlined word ” fragrance” most probably means………………
  2. Bad smell
  3. No smell
  4. Good smell
  5. Miswak
  6. The last paragraph mentions that the toothpaste made from miswak extract………….
  7. has the same effect of miswak.
  8. is not a true alternate practice of using miswak in its original shape.
  9. is preserved in vacuum bags
  10. is made by some companies, such as Al Khair and AL Falah

Passage1 حلم التفاحة

1) Last night I had a frightening dream حلم مخيف . I should explain that just before I went to bed, I ate an apple. I mention that أذكر ذلك because my mother always told me that if I ate right before going to sleep, I wouldn’t sleep well and might even have a bad dream. But let me tell you about my dream.

1) الليلة الماضية كان لدي حلم مخيف حلم مخيف. يجب أن أشرح أنه قبل أن أذهب إلى الفراش، أكلت تفاحة. أنا أذكر أن أذكر ذلك لأن أمي قالت لي دائما أنه إذا أكلت الحق قبل الذهاب إلى النوم، وأنا لن أنام جيدا، وربما حتى يكون حلما سيئا. ولكن اسمحوا لي أن أقول لكم عن حلمي

2) I found myself in what seemed to be familiar area منطقة مألوفة outdoor, but I couldn’t remember ever having been there before—in my waking life وقت اليقظة , I mean. Maybe in some other dream I had been there and that might be why it seemed familiar. There were lots of huge trees and vines and greenery, نباتات خضراء ومتسلقة more or less like I would imagine يتخيل a jungle غابة in Brazil to be. It was very humid ذات رطوبة , but I was dressed لابس in winter clothing ملابس شتوية . That made me even more uncomfortable غير مرتاح and I remember thinking that I should go home and change clothes. But where was home and how could I get there? I didn’t know the answer to either question- nor did I know how I ended up where I was. It never occurred لم يحدث to me in a dream that I could remove the heavy winter coat, hat and gloves that I was wearing.—it just didn’t seem to be an option أحد الخيارات

2) وجدت نفسي في ما بدا أن منطقة مألوفة مألوفة في الهواء الطلق، ولكن لا أستطيع أن أتذكر من أي وقت مضى وجود هناك من قبل في حياتي الاستيقاظ وقت اليقظة، أعني. ربما في حلم آخر كنت قد كان هناك، وهذا قد يكون السبب في أنها تبدو مألوفة. كان هناك الكثير من الأشجار الضخمة والكروم والمساحات الخضراء، نباتات خضراء ومتسلقة أكثر أو أقل مثل أتصور يتخيل غابة غابة في البرازيل أن يكون. كان رطب جدا، ولكن كنت يرتدون لابس في ملابس الشتاء ملابس شتوية. هذا جعلني أكثر غير مريح غير مرتاح، وأتذكر أنه ينبغي علي العودة إلى ديارهم وتغيير الملابس. ولكن أين كان المنزل وكيف يمكنني الوصول إلى هناك؟ لم أكن أعرف الإجابة على السؤالين – ولم أعرف كيف انتهيت في المكان الذي كنت فيه. لم يحدث أبدا لم يحدث لي في حلم أن أتمكن من إزالة معطف الشتاء الثقيل، وقبعة والقفازات التي كنت أرتدي.- فقط لا يبدو أن يكون خيار أحد الخيارات

3) In the dream I was all alone. No one was with me. Suddenly I heard voices and saw some people who had been my classmates زملاء الفصل الدراسي in high school. They were much older and looked quite different, but I instinctively بالحدس knew who they were. In the dream, I could even recall their names. There were four of them and they seemed very concerned قلق for me. They were dressed in loose light colored clothing appropriate مناسب for this jungle, but my attire ملابس didn’t attract their attention at all—nor did they mention anything about it being out of place. One of them approached me اقترب مني

and I knew he was speaking for all of them. He said they had been sent to warn me not to eat the fruit from the tree in front of me nor to drink any of the water from the stream جدول ماء nearby. As he told me this, I realized that I had something in my hand. It was fruit from the very tree he was warning me about—and I had already eaten more than half of it. Without him saying so, I knew that this fruit was poisonous سام and probably also the water from the stream.

3) في الحلم كنت كل وحده. لم يكن أحد معي. فجأة سمعت أصوات ورأى بعض الناس الذين كانوا زملائي زملاء الفصل الدراسي في المدرسة الثانوية. كانوا كبار السن بكثير وتبدو مختلفة تماما، ولكن أنا غريزي بالحدس يعرفون من كانوا. في الحلم، يمكن أن أذكر حتى أسمائهم. كان هناك أربعة منهم ويبدو أنهم قلقون جدا بالنسبة لي. كانوا يرتدون ملابس فضفاضة اللون الملون مناسبة مناسبة لهذا الغابة، ولكن الملابس بلدي الملابس لم جذب انتباههم على الإطلاق، كما أنها لم تذكر أي شيء عن كونها خارج المكان. واحد منهم اقترب مني اقترب مني

وكنت أعرف أنه كان يتحدث عن كل منهم. قال إنهم أرسلوا لتحذير لي ألا يأكلوا الفاكهة من الشجرة أمامي ولا أن يشربوا أي ماء من تيار جدول ماء قريب. كما قال لي هذا، أدركت أن لدي شيئا في يدي. كان ثمرة من الشجرة التي كان يحذرني عنها، وكنت قد أكلت بالفعل أكثر من نصفها. بدونه يقول ذلك، كنت أعرف أن هذه الفاكهة سام سام وربما أيضا الماء من تيار.

4) At that point I awoke in a heavy sweat عرق شديد , having thrown off my covers أغطية الفراش . I went to the bathroom and splashed ر ش some water on my face to cool down a bit, then returned to bed. How strange, I thought, that an apple tree was growing in the midst في منتصف of that jungle.

4) في تلك النقطة استيقظت في عرق شديد عرق شديد، بعد أن ألقيت من أغطية بلدي أغطية الفراش. ذهبت إلى الحمام ورشت ر ش بعض الماء على وجهي لتبريد قليلا، ثم عاد إلى السرير. كيف غريبة، اعتقدت، أن شجرة التفاح كانت تنمو في منتصف في منتصف تلك الغابة.

Questions

1-D 2-B 3-D 4-A 5-C 6-B 7-C 8-A 9-D

What did the writer do just before he went to bed?

  1. He listened to his mother
  2. He had a bad dream.
  3. He didn’t sleep well
  4. He ate some fruit.
  5. In his dream, where did the writer find himself?

He found himself in:

  1. his waking life
  2. a humid jungle
  3. another dream
  4. a huge tree ة
  5. According to paragraph (2), what did the writer feel that he wanted to do in the dream?

He wanted to:

  1. be far from home.
  2. be more uncomfortable
  3. call his mother
  4. put on different clothes
  5. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the clause, it just didn’t seem to be an option?
  6. He didn’t even think of it.
  7. He thought about doing it.
  8. There were too many choices.
  9. There weren’t enough choices.
  10. According to paragraph (3), until when did the writer think that he was alone in the jungle?

He thought he was alone until he:

  1. remembered their names.
  2. met some of his teachers.
  3. overheard people talking
  4. saw some strangers
  5. What did his friends in the dream warn him?

They warned him not to:

  1. swim in the stream nearby.
  2. take a fruit from the tree before him
  3. speak for all of them
  4. change his winter clothes
  5. What was his condition when he woke up?

He woke up:

  1. splashing water.
  2. under heavy covers.
  3. perspiring heavily
  4. under an apple tree
  5. Why did he dream about an apple tree?

Because:

  1. he ate an apple before sleeping.
  2. his classmates suggested he do so.
  3. he loves apples passionately.
  4. he thought apples were healthy.
  5. What is the best title for this passage?
  6. A Sweet Dream
  7. Mother’s Assignment
  8. Friend’s Visit
  9. A Nightmare

Passage planets, and stars 2

  1. How many things can you see in the night sky? A lot! On a clear night you might see the moon, some planets, and thousands of sparkling stars. You can see

even more with a telescope. You might see stars where before you only saw dark

space. You might see that many stars look larger than others. You might see that some stars that look white are really red or blue. With bigger and bigger telescopes you can see more and more objects in the sky. And you can see those objects in more and more details.

  1. But scientists believe there are some things in the sky that we will never see. We

won’t see them with the biggest telescope in the world, on the clearest night of the

year. That’s because they’re invisible. They’re the mysterious dead holes black called stars

  1. You might find it hard to imagine that stars die. After all, our Sun is a star. Year

after year we see it up in the sky, burning brightly, giving us heat and light. The Sun

certainly doesn’t seem to be getting old or weak. But stars do burnout and die

after billions of years.

  1. As the gases of a star burn, they give off light and heat. But when the gas runs out

,the star stops burning and begins to die. As the star cools, the outer layers

of the star pull in toward the center.

  1. The star squashes into a smaller and a smaller ball. If the star was very small to

begin with, the star ends up as a cold, dark ball called a black dwarf. If the star was

very big, it keeps squashing inward until it’s packed together tighter than

anything in the universe.

  1. Imagine if the earth were crushed until it was the size of the tiny marbl.

That’ how this dead star, black hole, is packed. What pulls the star in toward its center

with such power? It’s the same force قوة that pulls you down when you jump—the

force called gravity. A black hole is so tightly packed that its gravity sucks

in everything.—even light. The light from a black hole can never come back to your

eyes. That’s why we see nothing but blackness.

  1. So the next time you stare up at the night sky, remember: there’s more in the sky than

meets the eye! Scattered in the silent darkness are black holes—the great mystery of the space.

 

1-D 2-D 3-D 4-B 5-B 6-A 7-D 8-A 9-C

Questions

  1. What can bigger telescopes see?
  2. Hidden planets

B.Dark spaces

C.Larger sparkles

  1. Other bodies

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  1. According to paragraph (2), which of the following is NOT true about the black

holes?

  1. They are mysterious.
  2. They are invisible.
  3. They are dead.
  4. They are big.
  5. What does paragraph (3) say about our Sun?
  6. It is not a star.
  7. It is almost dead.
  8. It gives off light but not heat
  9. It will burn out and die.
  10. The word squashing in paragraph (4) is closes in meaning to which of the

following?

  1. Hitting
  2. Shrinking
  3. Rotating
  4. Breaking
  5. According to paragraph (4), why does a star give off light and heat?
  6. Because it reflects light.
  7. Because it burns its own fuel.
  8. Because of its mirror-like surface.
  9. Because of the light temperature of space.
  10. According to paragraph (4), what causes a star to die?
  11. Its fuel is depleted.
  12. It collides with other stars
  13. It explodes outward
  14. It ages too much.
  15. The word marble in paragraph (5) is closest in meaning to:
  16. a small vehicle
  17. a tiny insect
  18. a small building
  19. a polished rock
  20. Why are black holes invisible according to paragraph (5)?
  21. They do not allow light to escape.
  22. They are very tightly packed.
  23. They are too full of gravity
  24. They are extremely powerful.
  25. What is the best title for this passage?
  26. Black Holes: Energy and Age
  27. Black Holes: Gravity and size
  28. Black Holes: Reality and Mystery
  29. Black Holes: Stars and Telescopes

Passage control fire 3

.

  1. The ability to control fire is one of humankind’s great achievements. Fire making to generate heat and light made it possible for people to migrate to colder climates and enabled people to cook food — a key step in the fight against disease. Archaeology indicates that ancestors or relatives of modern humans might have controlled fire as early as 790,000 years ago.
  2. Some recent evidence may exist to demonstrate that man controlled fire from 1 to 1.8 million years ago (which would make it older than inventing the knife). By the Neolithic Revolution, during the introduction of grain based agriculture, people all over the world used fire as a tool in landscape management. These fires were typically controlled burns or “cool fires”, as opposed to uncontrolled “hot fires” that damage the soil.

 

1-A 2-C 3- C 4-B

Questions

  1. Before controlling fire, people…………………..
  2. didn’t eat cooked food
  3. generated heat and light
  4. migrated to colder climates
  5. fought diseases
  6. In the Neolithic Revolution, people…………………………
  7. used grain based agriculture
  8. used fire as a tool to manage landscape
  9. (A+B)
  10. damaged the soil
  11. “Cool fires” in the 2nd paragraph probably means………………………..
  12. landscape
  13. uncontrolled fires
  14. controlled fires
  15. damaged soil
  16. The fire that damages soil is called……………..
  17. controlled fire
  18. uncontrolled fire
  19. cool fire
  20. (A+C)

Passage Skiing 4

  1. Skiing is a mode of transport, recreational activity and competitive winter sport in

which the participant uses skis to glide on snow. Many types of competitive skiing

events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and the

International Ski Federation (FIS).

  1. Skiing has a history of almost five thousand years. Although modern skiing

has evolved from beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practiced as

early as 600 BC in what is now China.

  1. The word “ski” is one of a handful of words Norway has exported to the

international community. The word” ski” comes from the Old Norse word”

skio” which translates a piece of wood.

  1. Skiing, similarly to so many sports, started at a pre-historic ages, though its

concept was rather different from today’s idea of a sport activity. From 2500

BC, when the first primitive skis were made in Hoting, Sweden, people have

used skis to hunt more effectively for animals, to perform military races or to

transport themselves in the snow.

  1. Until the mid-19th century, skiing was primarily used for transport, and since

then has become a recreation and sport. Military ski races were held in

Norway during the 18th century. As equipment developed and ski lifts were

developed, skiing evolved into two main types during the late 19th and early

20th century, Alpine and Nordic.

  1. When we talk about skiing, we generally mean Alpine (also named downhill)

skiing. Its purpose is to ski down the hill by fixed heels and toes, commonly

with a pair of ski poles. Once you have skied down using proper body

balance, some lifts next to the ski tracks on the ridges transport you up the

mountain to the peak. However, there is another type of skiing called Nordic

skiing. It uses fixed-toe but free-heel bindings.

 

1-A 2-B 3-D 4-A 5-B

Questions

  1. The International Olympic Committee (IOC)……………
  2. recognizes skiing competitive events
  3. is a mode of transport
  4. is a winter sport
  5. is the same as the International Ski Federation (FIS)
  6. Old Norse is probably……………………..
  7. a kind of skiing
  8. an old language
  9. a sport
  10. a military skiing
  11. In paragraph 4, When the first primitive skis were made in Hoting, Sweden,

people have used skis for…………………………..purposes

  1. 2
  2. 5
  3. 4
  4. 3
  5. Alpine and Nordic are…………………….
  6. types of skiing
  7. ski lifts
  8. military races
  9. kinds of equipment
  10. In Alpine skiing, the skier ………………………….
  11. uses fixed toes only
  12. skis down the hill by fixed heels and toes
  13. uses fixed-toe but free-heel bindings
  14. uses fixed heels only

— — — — — — — — —

Passage pollution 5

  1. Thick black smoke curling out of smokestacks, horrible–tasting chemicals in your drinking water, pesticides in your food –– these are examples of pollution. Pollution is any contamination of the environment which causes harm to the environment or the inhabitants of the environment. There are many kinds of pollution, and there are many pollutants. Some obvious kinds of pollution are pollution of the air, soil, and water. Some less obvious or less salient kinds of pollution are radioactive, noise, and light pollution. Air pollution can be caused by particles, liquids, or gases that make the air harmful to breathe.
  2. There are two main types of air pollution: primary and secondary. Primary pollutants enter the air directly, like smoke from factories and car exhaust. Secondary pollutants are chemicals that mix together to pollute the air, like mixtures of emissions, or waste output, from vehicles and factory smoke that change to form more dangerous pollutants in the air and sunlight.
  3. Soil pollution can be caused by pesticides, leakage from chemical tanks, oil spills, and other chemicals which get into the soil by dumping or accidental contamination. Soil pollution can also cause water pollution when underground water becomes contaminated by coming into contact with the polluted soil
  4. Water pollution can be caused by waste products, sewage, oil spills, and litter in streams, rivers, lakes, and oceans. Some scientists believe that water pollution is the largest cause of death and disease in the world, causing about 14,000 deaths in the world each day.

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  1. Noise pollution can be caused by vehicle, aircraft, and industrial noise. It can also be caused by military or experimental sonar. Noise has health effects on people and animals. In people, it can cause high blood pressure, heart problems, sleep disturbances, and hearing problems.

 

1-A 2-C 3-B 4-D 5-D

Questions

  1. What is an example of air pollution?
  2. smoke from factories
  3. oil from oil spills
  4. chemicals in your drinking water
  5. noise from traffic
  6. What are the difference between the primary pollution and secondary pollution?
  7. Primary pollutants enter the air directly, but secondary ones don’t enter air
  8. Primary pollution is more dangerous than secondary pollution
  9. Secondary pollution is more dangerous than the primary pollution
  10. Primary pollution as dangerous as secondary pollution
  11. Pesticides and leakage from chemical tanks are examples of……..
  12. air pollution
  13. soil pollution
  14. noise pollution
  15. water pollution
  16. What kind of pollution is thought to cause the most death and disease?
  17. Air pollution
  18. Soil pollution
  19. Noise pollution
  20. Water pollution
  21. Ali is working at an airport and he is exposed to noise pollution every day, so he might get…………………….
  22. High blood pressure
  23. cancer
  24. heart problems
  25. (A+C)

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Passage a philosopher 6

  1. More than 1,000 years ago, people tried to capture images using the pinhole camera.These inventions helped people understand how light behaved in different situations,but they couldn’t put a picture onto a physical object. 1694, a philosopher namedWilhelm Homberg discovered that light darkened certain chemicals. This discovery helped others begin creating photographs.
  2. In 1826, the first photograph was taken by French inventor Nicéphore Niépce. He

used a polished metal plate and an oil called bitumen, which reacts to light.

Photographic technology then advanced quickly, and ways of taking and

developing pictures became cheaper and easier. Photography studios began to

pop up in urban areas, and “photographer” becomes a real profession.

  1. In 1900, George Eastman invented the Brownie camera; a small portable

camera was easy to use. Before its invention, photography was done by

professionals. Now, anyone could capture a moment with a photograph.

  1. Though color photography was invented in the late 1800, color film didn’t take

off until the 1950s. The digital camera was invented in 1975, and the digital

cameras became available on the market in 1990.Today, more digital cameras

are sold than traditional film cameras.

 

1-C 2-B 3-A 4-D 5-A

Questions

  1. Wilhelm Homberg lived in the …………………….century.
  2. 16th
  3. 18th
  4. 17th
  5. 15th
  6. The main idea of paragraph 2 is that………………..
  7. the first photograph was taken by French inventor Nicéphore Niépce
  8. how photography developed and advanced quickly and became a profession
  9. why photography studios began to pop up in urban areas
  10. an oil called bitumen reacts to light
  11. The Brownie camera was………………………..
  12. easy to use and to carry
  13. invented in 1826
  14. to be used by professionals
  15. big and heavy

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  1. If somebody lived in 1956, he………………….
  2. could have only a black and white photo
  3. could use a digital camera
  4. could use the You Tube
  5. could have a colored photo
  6. The main idea of the passage is ………………
  7. How photography developed from the past until now
  8. Photography in the 20th century
  9. How the pinhole camera was invented
  10. How photography was 1000 years ago

Passage Ice cream 7

.

  1. Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It is usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors. Ice cream is one of the most popular desserts in the world. Over four billion gallons (15.1 billion liters) are consumed each year worldwide. Although many people enjoy this frozen dessert, not too many people know its history.
  2. Eating frozen sweets started about two thousand years ago. In ancient Italy, Persia and China, ice (or sometimes snow) was mixed with fruit or fruit juice. In ancient Rome, the Emperor Nero had snow brought down from the mountains and mixed with fruit.
  3. Arabs were the first people to add milk to frozen desserts. Instead of fruit juice, they added sugar as a sweetener. But sugar wasn’t the only thing added. They also added dried fruits and nuts. As early as 1,000 years ago, ice cream could be found in Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo.
  4. After this time, ice cream and ice cream recipes were mentioned in books. One of the earliest ice cream recipes appeared in a cookbook from 1718. The Oxford English Dictionary claims that the first mention of the phrase “ice cream” was in a magazine that was published in the year 1744.
  5. These days there are many companies that sell ice cream and the number of different flavors available is well over 1,000. Frozen desserts have been around for a long time and will most likely be enjoyed well into the future.

 

1-B 2-A 3-C 4-D 5- A

Questions

  1. Ice cream is made from…………………..
  2. snacks and desserts
  3. dairy products
  4. 4 billion gallons
  5. 15.1 billion liters
  6. The main idea of paragraph 2 is………………….
  7. How people started eating frozen sweets in the past
  8. Why the Roman Emperor Nero had snow mixed with fruit.
  9. How the Italians and Chinese made ice cream
  10. Fruit and fruit juice are used in making ice cream
  11. The items the Arabs added to frozen desserts were………………….
  12. fruit juice and sugar
  13. milk and fruit juice
  14. dried fruit, nuts, milk and sugar
  15. fruit juice
  16. The pronoun “they” in paragraph 3 refers to the …………..
  17. fruits
  18. desserts
  19. people
  20. Arabs
  21. The best title for this passage could be…………….
  22. The History of Ice cream
  23. Arabs and Ice cream
  24. How Ice cream is Made
  25. Books on Ice creams

Passage The wheel 8

  1. The wheel probably originated in ancient Sumer (modern Iraq) in the 5th millennium BC, originally in the function of potter’s wheels. The wheel reached India and Pakistan with the Indus Valley Civilization in the 3rd millennium BC. Near the northern side of the Caucasus several graves were found, in which since 3700 BC people had been buried on carts.
  2. The earliest description of what may be a wheeled vehicle with four wheels is 3500 BC clay pot excavated in southern Poland. What is particularly interesting about the wheel is that wheels only occur in nature in the microscopic form, so man’s use of the wheel could not have been in mimicry of nature. It is worth noting, however, that the rolling motion of the wheel is seen in certain animals that manipulate their bodies into the shape of a ball and roll.

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  1. The wheel reached Europe and India (the Indus Valley civilization) in the 4th millennium BC. In China, the wheel is certainly present with the adoption of the chariot in 1200 BC.

 

1-B 2- B 3-A

Questions

  1. The origin of the wheel is believed to be………………..
  2. India
  3. Iraq
  4. Poland
  5. Pakistan
  6. A vehicle with four wheels was first discovered in Poland in the…………………century BC.
  7. 3 rd
  8. 4 th
  9. 2 nd
  10. 5 th
  11. The word millennium in paragraph 3 probably means a ……………
  12. century
  13. wheel
  14. valley
  15. civilization

Passage Queen France 9

.

King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ruled France from 1774 to 1789, a time when the country was fighting bankruptcy. The royal couple did not let France’s insecure financial situation limit their immoderate spending, however. Even though the minister of finance repeatedly warned the king and queen against wasting money, they continued to spend great fortunes on their personal pleasure. This lavish spending greatly enraged the people of France. They felt that the royal couple bought its luxurious lifestyle at the poor people’s expense.

Marie Antoinette, the beautiful but exceedingly impractical queen, seemed uncaring about her subjects’ misery. While French citizens begged for lower taxes, the queen embellished her palace with extravagant works of art. She also surrounded herself with artists, writers, and musicians, who encouraged the queen to spend money even more profusely.

While the queen’s favorites glutted themselves on huge feasts at the royal table, many people in France were starving. The French government taxed the citizens outrageously. These high taxes paid for the entertainments the queen and her court so enjoyed. When the minister of finance tried to stop these royal spendthrifts, the queen replaced him. The intense hatred that the people felt for Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette kept building until it led to the French Revolution. During this time of struggle and  violence (1789-1799), thousands of aristocrats, as well as the king and queen themselves, lost their lives at the guillotine. Perhaps if Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette had reined in their extravagant spending, the events that rocked France would not have occurred.

 

1-C 2- A

Questions

  1. The people surrounding the queen encouraged her to spend money ______.
  2. wisely
  3. abundantly
  4. carefully
  5. foolishly
  6. joyfully
  7. The minister of finance tried to curb these royal ______.
  8. aristocrats
  9. money wasters
  10. enemies
  11. individuals
  12. spenders

Passage cars 10

Visitors to America are immediately struck by the tremendous numbers of automobiles filling the highways and crowding the city streets. The automobile, which has transformed the American way of life, is the most indispensable workhorse of the family. During the week, the father drives it to his job in the city, alone, or in a “car pool” arrangement with several of his fellow workers. When he leaves it at home, his wife uses it constantly to do errands, to haul groceries, to drive children to lessons or appointments, to shops or swimming pools. On weekends, the family drives out to the country for a picnic lunch or may take a trip of several hundred miles. On vacations, no corner of the country is beyond the family’s reach.

2- All of America has felt the changes, which came with the automobile and with the network of highways that have been built to serve it. Farmers, who live far from their neighbors, are no longer isolated. Tractors of the work of the many farmlands they cannot afford to hire, Trucks carry their products to market, to storage elevators or to railroads.

3- Traffic jams in cities and along the approaches to cities, especially at morning and evening rush hours and at the start and end of weekends, are difficult problems. How to find out enough parking space in the cities, even with underground parking lots and many-storied “pigeonhole” parking structures in another. More highways and wider ones are needed as fast as they can be built.

1-D 2-C 3-A 4-C 5-A 6-D 7-C

Questions

1- The main topic of this passage is __________________ .

  1. a) The network of highways
  2. b) The American highways
  3. c) Trucks and Tractors in America
  4. d) Cars and the American Life

2- The automobile has had _______________ on the American society.

  1. a) A little effect
  2. b) hardly any effect
  3. c) an obvious effect
  4. d) no effect whatsoever

3- The American father ________________________.

  1. a) always drives alone to work.
  2. b) may share his car with other colleagues.
  3. c) drives his children to lessons.
  4. d) drives his wife to haul groceries.

4- The American family may spend the weekend ____________.

  1. a) abroad.
  2. b) in down town.
  3. c) out of town.
  4. d) in a family gathering.

5-Thanks to the automobile, all American States have become____________.

  1. a) within reach.
  2. b) more isolated.
  3. c) beyond reach.
  4. d) torn apart.

6- Most American families __________________ cars.

  1. a) cannot afford
  2. b) do not badly need
  3. c) do not have
  4. d) cannot do without

7- The word ‘ which ‘ in the first line of the second paragraph refers to _________________.

  1. a) all Americans
  2. b) automobiles
  3. c) changes
  4. d) traffi

الام الكورية وبيتها

Language is a way to communicate with each other. We started to learn language when we were born. However, people are used to speaking their native language, so immigrants are having many problems between the first generation and the second generation because they don’t have the same native language. Also, the second generation is losing their identity. Especially in America, there are many immigrants that came from different countries to succeed in the States. Because they suffer in lots of areas such as getting a job and trying to speak English, they want their children to speak English, not only at school, but also at home in order to be more successful. Because of this situation, their children are losing their ethnic identity and, even more, they are ignoring their parents whose English is not very good.

For example, my aunt, who has been living in Chicago for fifteen years, has three children and they were all born in the States. The eighteen year old daughter speaks English as a native language and she speaks Korean very well too. She has no problems talking with her parents, but she still doesn’t understand Korean jokes, and there are sometimes misunderstandings. The second daughter is fourteen years old, and she doesn’t want to speak Korean. My aunt often gets upset with her because she is very Americanized and they cannot understand each other. Even when my aunt punishes her, this daughter does not understand what my aunt is talking about. I felt sympathy for my aunt whenever my fourteen year old cousin said, “Mom, what is your problem?” The third child is a twelve year old son. He speaks English to his parents and my aunt speaks Korean to him as she does to the second daughter. He also has a problem communicating with his parents. My aunt is trying to teach him to speak both languages very well, but it is very hard for him because he speaks English all day and does not understand why he should learn to speak Korean.

I think most immigrants are trying to preserve their native language in their new country, but this doesn’t help very much in getting a good job. My aunt didn’t teach Korean to her children in order to help them succeed in the U.S.; she did so, hopefully, to help them establish a Korean identity. Though the second generation is born in the new country, they often get confused about their identity because they look different from others, and also, if they visit their parent’s country, they will probably feel different from other people there too. My cousins told me that when they visited Korea a few years ago, they felt different from other Koreans. They could even feel it just strolling around the street because they wore different clothes and walked differently.

We must realize that language is important and valuable for many reasons. Immigrants should make an effort not to be ignored by their children and to make their children understand their heritage by teaching them the parents’ language. This is very important, not only for the harmony of the family, but also in helping the second generation establish their identity.

اللغة هي وسيلة للتواصل مع بعضها البعض. بدأنا في تعلم اللغة عندما ولدنا. ومع ذلك، يتم استخدام الناس للتحدث لغتهم الأم، لذلك المهاجرين لديهم العديد من المشاكل بين الجيل الأول والجيل الثاني لأنهم ليس لديهم نفس اللغة الأم. أيضا، الجيل الثاني يفقد هويتهم. وخاصة في أمريكا، هناك العديد من المهاجرين الذين جاءوا من بلدان مختلفة لتحقيق النجاح في الدول. لأنهم يعانون في الكثير من المجالات مثل الحصول على وظيفة ومحاولة التحدث باللغة الإنجليزية، يريدون أطفالهم التحدث باللغة الإنجليزية، وليس فقط في المدرسة، ولكن أيضا في المنزل من أجل أن تكون أكثر نجاحا. وبسبب هذا الوضع، فإن أطفالهم يفقدون هويتهم العرقية، بل يتجاهلون أبويهم الذين ليست لغتهم الإنجليزية جيدة جدا.

على سبيل المثال، عمتي، التي تعيش في شيكاغو لمدة خمسة عشر عاما، لديها ثلاثة أطفال، وجميعهم ولدوا في الولايات. الابنة البالغة من العمر ثمانية عشر عاما تتحدث الإنجليزية كلغة أصلية، وهي تتحدث الكورية بشكل جيد جدا. ليس لديها مشاكل في التحدث مع والديها، لكنها لا تزال لا تفهم النكات الكورية، وهناك أحيانا سوء الفهم. الابنة الثانية تبلغ من العمر 14 عاما، وهي لا تريد التحدث باللغة الكورية. عمتي غالبا ما يزعج معها لأنها أمريكان جدا وأنها لا يمكن أن نفهم بعضنا البعض. حتى عندما تعاقب عمتي، هذه الفتاة لا تفهم ما تتحدث عنه عمتي. شعرت بالتعاطف مع عمتي كلما قال عمري البالغ من العمر 14 عاما، “أمي، ما هي مشكلتك؟” الطفل الثالث هو ابن يبلغ من العمر اثني عشر عاما. يتحدث الإنجليزية إلى والديه وعمتي يتحدث الكورية له كما أنها تفعل إلى ابنة الثانية. لديه أيضا مشكلة التواصل مع والديه. تحاول خالتي أن تعلمه أن يتكلم اللغتين بشكل جيد جدا، ولكن من الصعب جدا عليه لأنه يتحدث الإنجليزية كل يوم ولا يفهم لماذا يجب أن يتعلم التحدث باللغة الكورية.

أعتقد أن معظم المهاجرين يحاولون الحفاظ على لغتهم الأم في بلادهم الجديدة، ولكن هذا لا يساعد كثيرا في الحصول على وظيفة جيدة. لم تقم عمتي بتعليم الكورية لأطفالها لمساعدتهم على النجاح في الولايات المتحدة. وقالت انها نأمل ذلك، لمساعدتهم على إنشاء هوية الكورية. على الرغم من أن الجيل الثاني يولد في البلاد الجديدة، وغالبا ما يتم الخلط حول هويتهم لأنها تبدو مختلفة عن الآخرين، وأيضا، إذا كانت زيارة بلد والدهم، فإنها ربما تشعر مختلفة عن الآخرين هناك أيضا. أخبرني أبناء عمتي أنه عندما زاروا كوريا قبل بضع سنوات، كانوا يشعرون بأنهم مختلفون عن الكوريين الآخرين. بل إنهم قد يشعرون بأنهم يمشيون في الشوارع فقط لأنهم يرتدون ملابس مختلفة ويسيرون بشكل مختلف.

وعلينا أن ندرك أن اللغة مهمة وقيمة لأسباب عديدة. وينبغي للمهاجرين أن يبذلوا جهدا لا يتجاهلهم أبنائهم، وأن يجعلوا أطفالهم يفهمون تراثهم من خلال تعليمهم لغة الوالدين. هذا مهم جدا، ليس فقط من أجل انسجام الأسرة، ولكن أيضا في مساعدة الجيل الثاني تأسيس هويتهم.

Answers: C A B B   B C A E

  1. Look at the title and scan the article quickly. What do you think this article will be about?
    (A) Learning a second language.
    (B) Immigrants who become sick in the U.S.
    (C) Language and its effect on the identity of immigrants.
    (D) Schools attended by immigrants to the U.S.
  2. Which of these statements is NOT true according to the first paragraph of the article?
    (A) Second generation immigrants are usually eager to learn their parents’ native language.
    (B) It is often hard for first and second generation family members to communicate with each other.
    (C) Because second generation immigrant children often speak only English, they may lose their ethnic identity.
    (D) Sometimes second generation immigrant children ignore their parents because of language difference
  3. Which of the following is NOT true about the 18 year old daughter?
    (A) She was born in the U.S.
    (B) She speaks only English very well; her Korean is poor.
    (C) She gets along better with her parents than her brother and other sister do.
    (D) She doesn’t understand Korean jokes well
  4. Which is NOT a reason that the 14 year old sister has problems with her mother?
    (A) She doesn’t want to speak Korean.
    (B) She doesn’t love her mother.
    (C) She is very Americanized.
    (D) She does not understand her mother when she gets punished.
  5. To whom does the mother speak Korean?
    (A) Her oldest daughter only.
    (B) All of her children.
    (C) Her two daughters only.
    (D) Only to her son.
  6. Why did the author’s aunt try to teach her children to speak Korean?
    (A) To help them succeed in the U.S.
    (B) To help them find a good job.
    (C) To help them establish a Korean identity.
    (D) To help her improve her Korean language skills.
    (E) None of the above.
  7. There are many reasons that second generation immigrants may get confused about their identity. Which of the following is NOT found in the article?
    (A) Their American friends may not see them as Korean –Americans.
    (B) They look different than most of their friends in the U.S.
    (C) If they travel to Korea they wear different clothes than the Koreans.
    (D) If they visit Korea, they even walk differently than the Koreans.
  8. Which of the following is closest to the main idea of this article?
    (A) Second generation Korean-Americans walk and dress differently than their parents.
    (B) Many immigrant families have problems with communication.
    (C) The language spoken in immigrant households is often a mixture of two languages.
    (D) Second generation Korean immigrants often speak only English.
    (E) Teaching immigrant children the parents’ native language helps them establish their ethnic identity.

A matryoshka doll

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matryoshka_doll

A matryoshka doll (Russian: матрёшка; IPA: [mɐˈtrʲɵʂkə] ( listen), matrëška), also known as a Russian nesting doll, or Russian doll,[1] is a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside another. The name “matryoshka” (матрёшка), literally “little matron”, is a diminutive form of Russian female first name “Matryona” (Матрёна) or “Matriosha”.[]

A set of matryoshkas consists of a wooden figure which separates, top from bottom, to reveal a smaller figure of the same sort inside, which has, in turn, another figure inside of it, and so on.

The first Russian nested doll set was made in 1890 by Vasily Zvyozdochkin from a design by Sergey Malyutin, who was a folk crafts painter at Abramtsevo. Traditionally the outer layer is a woman, dressed in a sarafan, a long and shapeless traditional Russian peasant jumper dress. The figures inside may be of either gender; the smallest, innermost doll is typically a baby turned from a single piece of wood. Much of the artistry is in the painting of each doll, which can be very elaborate. The dolls often follow a theme; the themes may vary, from fairy talecharacters to Soviet leaders. Matryoshka dolls are often referred to as “babushka dolls”, babushka meaning “grandmother” or “old woman”.

Matryoshka dolls[7] are often designed to follow a particular theme; for instance, peasant girls in traditional dress. Originally, themes were often drawn from tradition or fairy tale characters, in keeping with the craft tradition—but since the late 20th century, they have embraced a larger range, including Russian leaders.

Modern artists create many new styles of nesting dolls. Common themes include floral, ChristmasEaster, religious, animal collections, portraits and caricatures of famous politicians, musicians, athletes, astronauts, “robots,” and popular movie stars. Today, some Russian artists specialize in painting themed matryoshka dolls that feature specific categories of subjects, people or nature. Areas with notable matryoshka styles include Sergiyev Posad, Semionovo (now the town of Semyonov),[8] Polkhovsky Maidan, and Kirov.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s during Perestroika, freedom of expression allowed the leaders of the Soviet Union to become a common theme of matryoshka, with the largest doll featuring then-current leader Mikhail Gorbachev. These became very popular at the time, affectionately earning the nickname of a “Gorby”, namesake of Gorbachev. With the periodic succession of Russian leadership after the collapse of the Soviet Union, newer versions would start to feature Russian presidents Boris YeltsinVladimir Putin, and Dmitry Medvedev.

Most sets feature the current leader as the largest doll, with the predecessors decreasing in size. The remaining smaller dolls may feature other former leaders such as Leonid BrezhnevNikita KhrushchevJoseph StalinVladimir Lenin, and sometimes several historically significant Tsars such as Nicholas II and Peter the GreatYuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko almost never appear due to the short length of their respective terms. However, some less common sets may feature the current leader as the smallest doll, with the predecessors increasing in size, usually with Stalin or Lenin as the largest doll.

Some sets that include Yeltsin preceding Gorbachev were made during the brief period between the establishment of President of the RSFSR and the collapse of the Soviet Union, as both Yeltsin and Gorbachev were concurrently in prominent government positions. During Medvedev’s presidency, Medvedev and Putin may both share the largest doll due to Putin still having a prominent role in the government as Prime Minister of Russia. As of Putin’s re-election as the 4th President of Russia, Medvedev will usually succeed Yeltsin and preceded Putin in stacking order, due to Putin’s role solely as the largest doll.

Political matryoshka usually range between 5 and 10 dolls per set.

The largest set of matryoshka dolls in the world is a 51-piece set hand-painted by Youlia Bereznitskaia of Russia, completed in 2003. The tallest doll in the set measures 53.97 centimetres (21.25 in); the smallest, 0.31 centimetres (0.12 in). Arranged side-by-side, the dolls span 3.41 metres (11 ft 2.25 in).[9]

Matryoshkas are used metaphorically, as a design paradigm, known as the “matryoshka principle” or “nested doll principle”. It denotes a recognizable relationship of “object-within-similar-object” that appears in the design of many other natural and crafted objects. Examples of this use include the matrioshka brain, the Matroska media-container format, and the Russian Doll model of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

The onion metaphor is of similar character. If the outer layer is peeled off an onion, a similar onion exists within. This structure is employed by designers in applications such as the layering of clothes or the design of tables, where a smaller table nests within a larger table, and a smaller one within that.

paper

he word “paper” is etymologically derived from Latin papyrus, which comes from the Greek πάπυρος (papuros), the word for the Cyperus papyrus plant.[7][8] Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the Cyperus papyrus plant, which was used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean cultures for writing before the introduction of paper into the Middle East and Europe.[9] Although the word paper is etymologically derived from papyrus, the two are produced very differently and the development of the first is distinct from the development of the second. Papyrus is a lamination of natural plant fibres, while paper is manufactured from fibres whose properties have been changed by maceration.[2]


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