الرئيسية / اختبارات / الأبتس / مجموعة اختبار aptis مع بعض التعابير والتنبيهات .

مجموعة اختبار aptis مع بعض التعابير والتنبيهات .

جميع ما ذكر نقل من مجموعة اختبار aptis وقناة خبرات 2 مع بعض
الاضافات …
كل الشكر والتقدير لمن تعاون و ساهم في نشر الفائدة ..
دعواتي للجميع بالتوفيق ….
لا تنسوني من دعوة في ظهر الغيب ,,, Snow white

…………………. .
التعلم النشط
Active learning is a method that engages students in the learning process. It requires students to do meaningful learning activities and think about what they are doing .……………………………أهمية التقنية في التعليم .
Today’s generation of students are growing up in a digital world . Integrating technology in education helps students stay engaged. Today’s students love technology so they are sure to be interested in learning if they can use the tools they love.…………………..تعليم الكبار
Definition of Adult learning: Adult learning is defined as ‘the entire range of formal, non-formal and informal learning. activities which are undertaken by adults after a break since leaving initial education and. training, and which results in the acquisition of new knowledge and skills’.………………………التخطيط للدرس
A lesson plan is a teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction, or ‘learning trajectory’ for a lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class learning.او
A lesson plan is the instructor’s road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the class time.او
A good teacher makes his lessons attractive and easy to his students. He makes the dull students understand their lessons in an easiest method. He teaches his students morals and helps in building up their future by proper teachings.…………………….غرفة المعلمين
It’s also known as a teacher’s lounge. It is a room in primary ( elementary ) ,intermediate , secondary school or college where teachers have their desk and prepare their lessons
It is a common room where teachers or school staff talk to each other ,discuss work ,eat , drink and socialize while not in class.او
The room teacher is place to taking a rest from the students and lectures, and in our country must be found in any school that room . Sometimes room teacher giving us comfortable and talk with my colleagues.
…………………..تعبير عن اهمية التعليم
Education should be a part of everyone’s life. A good education offers something for everyone, whether it be on the simple level or a more complex one. Education should provide an opportunity for students to develop a strong sense of creativity, a high self esteem, and a lifelong respect for learning. Education should help students establish a strong sense of confidence in themselves. A teacher will be one factor that helps a student learn and progress along their way through life. Teachers combine their own ideas with other people’s to be able to give a good education to their students.
نموذج اجابه لايميل غير رسمي ) لصديق ( :
Hi Ahmad, how are you?
Don’t you know about the last news of our club? The meeting with the computer expert was canceled. I don’t know what to do . It seems that it never happens. So I really disappointed because it is the second time it occurred. I joined the club for being learning but it has been frustrated.
I talk to you later, I hope to be better.

نموذج لكتابة ايميل رسمي عن نادي الكمبيوتر
مثال على السوال :🔺

  • Computer Club You are a member of a computer club. You received this e-mail from the club:
    *
  • Dear Member,
    *
  • We are writing to tell you that the famous computer expert, Ms Tasmeen Mohammed will unfortunately not be able to give a talk at our next club meeting due to personal reasons. She has requested we reschedule the talk for next year in either January or March. Please contact the club secretary if you have a preference for one of the two months. Our meeting will take place as usual with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of learning on the internet.
    🔺🔺Write an e-mail to the secretary of the club. Write about your feelings and what you would like to do. Write 120-150 words. You have 20 minutes. *
    نموذج إجابه 🔺
    Dear Sir or Madam
    I am writing to express my deepest disappointment regarding the rescheduled of the talk given by Ms Tasmeen Mohammad.
    For your information,I was very eager to meet her in person and I have already allocated my time for the talk to ensure that I would not miss it. I have also notified my friends about it.
    I would like to suggest if you could find another expertise in computer for next two months. I believe our club members will agree with me. I hope you will consider my suggestion for the good of our members. Hopefully our meeting will fill with more useful information.
    I look forward to hearing from you soon.
    Yours sincerely,
    Khaled
    Dear sir/madam, ايميل رسمي عن نادي المعلمين
    I am writing to inform you about the advantages of teaching in Saudi Arabia, and how it attracts people to be in this kind of job.
    Firstly ,teaching in Saudi Arabia provides teachers the chance to live in one of the world’s wealthiest countries. In addition, it gives teachers the opportunity to learn more about Middle East and Islamic traditions.
    Secondly, many people, who want to come to Saudi Arabia, are attracted by the very advantageous salaries. No other countries in the world offer better salaries than Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the workload is not heavy. In other words, teachers could have 15 – 20 sessions per week.
    Do not hesitate to contact me again if you require any further information.
    Yours faithfully,
    Snow white
    Dear sir/madam, ايميل رسمي عن ادارة الصف
    I am writing to inform you about my ideas on the topic of class management.
    In my opinion, a teacher could manage the class by showing his/her students that he/she cares about them. Therefore, students would like the teacher and follow the class rules. In addition, it is important to make sure you have everyone’s attention before you start teaching. Furthermore, don not ask your students to follow a rule and not follow it yourself. Moreover, understanding why your students are misbehaving could help you solve the problem they make. Be interesting in the classroom, so your students do not feel bored.
    Do not hesitate to contact me again if you require any further information.
    Yours faithfully,
    Omar
    مواضيع تكررت في اختبار الكتابه :
    teachers training community
    Also, the qualities of a good friend
    سؤال الايميل انك عضو في معهد تدريب معلمين
    المطلوب تعطي عناصر و افكار عن ادارة الصف
    الطرق الحديثه في التعليم
    معلومات شخصيه
    وبعدها أتكلم عن مؤتمر حضرته
    وبعدها محادثه
    ليه احضر المؤتمر وش الأشياء اللي فيه و اكثر مؤتمر استفدت منه
    )الكتابة موضوع الرسالة عن تغيير غرفة الاجتماعات الى غرفة اصغر لاتتسع للحضور اكتب الى صديقك والى المشرف على القاعة
    ومعطيك رقم الغرفه وعدد الأشخاص ١٢٠ وانه أمس تم تغيير الخطة وتغيرت الغرفة (
    تدرس) اَي ماده ( الطلاب وش المواضيع اللي تدرسها.
    لماذا انت قدمت في هذا البرنامج
    .بعدين ٣ اسئله منها قدم نصيحه لزميل يدرس صفوف كبار في السن ويأتون متعبين من العمل .؟؟
    كمان نصيحه كيف نقنع الطلاب ان الواجبات غير مضيعة للوقت ؟؟
    وسؤال اخر كيف يومك الدراسي ..؟!
    وسؤال اخر اذكر تجربة عمل مميزه لك في المدرسه ؟!
    وكيف تكون النصيحه مهمه لك في مجال عملك؟
    وكيف تعمل اذا كنت امام مشرف او زميل .؟!
    السؤال الاخير اكتب إيملين تجاوب على النادي الدولي للإنجليزي؟؟ وكان فيه ٣ اسئله؟
    ويب سايت للمعلمين حول العالم
    اكتب عن استخدام التقنية في التعليم
    ……………………………….
    عبارات لاختبار التحدث
    1 – في بداية الحديث
    2 – في الوسط
    3 – للتعبير عن رأي
    4 – في النهايه
    Speaking phrases :
    1 – when you start speakingThe first thing I would like to say is ……….
    I’m going to talk about ……..Let me start by saying……
    2- in the middleI forget to mention that …….Let me give you an example…..Can I add that …..
    3- expressing an opinion :I strongly believe that …..I am absolutely certain that …. is better than …Some people may disagree with my opinion , but …..
    4– when you are nearly finished
    I don’t think I have anything else to add….I think I’ve covered everything…..

تكررت في اختبار التحدث :
Tell me about your normal weekAbout your townFavorite sport pictures to describeHow to develop your students imagination Why its important to help your student individuallyKarate vs soccerTeam sport vs individual sportYou want to go to a teaching conference
Why do you become a teacher?Cooperative learning
Planning for lessons
Physical activity
Technology in education
Group work
تابع اختبار التحدث : صور المقارنة
الصورة الاولى لاولاد يلعبو كوره
و الصورة الثانية بنت تلعب كاراتيه
بعدين سألت ليش الرياضة ضروريه لطلاب المدرسة
تكلم عن عائلتك
اهم رياضة في مدينتك
اتكلم عن افضل صديق
و عن كتابي المفضل
وكيف اروح لدوامي كل يوم
Team sports always played by group of people such as football, volleyball and basketball. On the other hand, the individual sports which played by one person such as do karate , gymnastics and table tennis.)مقارنة بين الرياضه الفردية والجماعية (
ماذا تعمل اذا انتهيت من العمل والرياضة المفضله وتكلم عن المدينة اللي تسكنها
الصورة الاولى عن الاكل الصحي في المدرسه وأسئلته عن الاكل الصحي فوائده هل يتم تعليم الطلاب عن الأكلات
الصحية وهكذا
بعدها صورتين معمل كيمياء وطلاب يعملون تجارب ومعمل فيزياء مع المدرس أيضا تجربه نقارن بينهم وهل تؤيد
وجود معامل داخل المدرسه
وآخر شي هي مدير مجتمع مع معلمين يناقشون أمور المدرسه وأي الأشياء اللي لا يمكن تصير بالاجتماع

In this picture, I can see a teacher.
,I think she works in a secondary school .she reads from lap top , she Tries to correct the details for them. They are very happy. , may be they are doing well.
او
The picture shows me a teacher with her students in the class . They listen to her with a lot of attention . The class seems enjoyable .
التعليم Education
Primary( elementary ) School مدرسة ابتدائية –
Preparatory( intermediate ) School اعدادية متوسطه – –
Secondary School ثانوية –
University جامعة –
Teacher معلم –
Surveyor حارس –
Pupil تلميذ –
Break فسحة –
Punishment عقاب –
Student طالب –
Certificate شهادة –
Diploma شهادة دبلوم –
Exam اختبار –
Success نجاح –
Failure رسوب –
Scale سلم –
Educational Level مستوى دراسي –
Illiteracy امية –
Ignorance جهل –
Arabicising تعريب –
Foreign Languages لغات أجنبية –
Course- book كتاب المنهج الدراسي –
Syllabus مقرر –
Session دورة –
Section شعبة –
Deliberation مداولة –
Disciplinary Council مجلس تأديبي –
Enrollment تسجيل –
Exclusion طرد –
Classroom فصل دراسي –
Study دراسة –
Director مدير –
Explanation شرح –
Revision مراجعة –
Summary ملخص –
Question سؤال –
Professor استاذ –
Answer جواب –
Recitation استظهار –
Practice ممارسة –
Oral شفوي –
Written كتابي –
Entertainmentوسائل ترفيه
intercultural competence
الكفاءه بين الثقافات
Wep pagesصفحات الانترنت
Main purpose
الغرض الرئيسي
Context
سياق الكلام
Comprehension
استيعاب
details
تفاصيل
brain storming
العصف الذهني
Modeling
تصميم
critical reading
قراءه نقديه
Curriculaمناهج
feedback
تغذيه راجعه
Lesson planخطه الدرس
Methods
اساليب طريقه –
homework
واجب منزلي
Sounds
اصوات
Pronounce
نطق
assessment criteria
معايير التقييم
activityنشاط
Kinestheticحركي
Write a short essay
كتابه مقال قصير
Gapفراغ
exercise
تمرين
Presentation
عرض
Atlasاطلس
grades
درجات
attendanceحضور
assignment performance
اداء المهمه
Search
بحث
Skills
مهارات
Inferring . استنتاج
Drafting . صياغة
Heading .. عنوان او رؤوس اقلام
استراتجيات التدريس الحديثة
Modern Strategies Of Teaching :
1 – Critical thinking . التفكير الناقد
2 – Brainstorming . العصف الذهني
3 – Role-playing .لعب الادوار
4 – Collaborative learning . التعليم التعاوني
5 – Cognitive organizes . التنظيم الادراكي
الإبداع Creativity
الاختبار Test Examination
الاختبار التحصيلي Achievement Test
أساليب التدريس Teaching Techniques
الاستدلال Inference
الاستقراء Induction
الاستقصاء Investigation
الاستنتاج Deduction
الامتحان النهائي Final Examination
الأسس الفلسفية Philosophical principles
الأسس الاجتماعية Sociological principles
الأسس النفسية Psychological principles
الأسس المعرفية Cognitive principles
تصميم المنهج Curriculum Design
تطوير المنهج Curriculum Development
التعلم Learning
التعلم بالاكتشاف Learning by discovery
التعلم التعاوني Cooperative Learning
التعلم الذاتي Self – Learning
التعلم القبلي Former Learning
التعليم Instruction
تقنيات تربوية Education Technology
التقويم Evaluation
تقويم الأداء Performance Evaluation
التقويم البنائي أو التكويني Constructive Evaluation
التقويم التشخيصي Diagnostic Evaluation
خرائط المفاهيم Concept Maps
التقويم الختامي Summative Evaluation
التقويم القبلي Formative Evaluation
التقويم المستمر Continuous Evaluation
التقييم Assessment
ملف الإنجاز Portfolio Achievement
المشروع Project
Knowledge >المعرفة
Comprehension >الاستيعاب
Gist < الخلاصة Details <التفاصيل Vocabulary and context السياق والمفردات Complicated Skimming قراءه سريعه Analyzing تحليل Evaluatingتقييم Guessing التخمين inferencingالاستدلال Gamification > التلعيب
Encouraging > تشجيع
Engaging > جذاب
Intercultural > بين الثقافات
Competence > كفاءة
Mandatory > إجباري
………………………….ي بادئ الأمر firstly
أولا ا وقبل كل شيء first and foremost/ firstly, and above all else
من نافل القول أن it goes without saying that
من بديهي القول أن it is self evident that
لا يخفى على أحد أن It is well known that/ everyone is well aware that
يبدو للوهلة الأولى أن it seems at first glance that
هذا السؤال يُقصد به أن what is meant by this question is that
إنه موضوع مطروق it is a much frequented subject, a much discussed
subject
إننا في التأملات الآتية في هذه الورقة/هذا البحث سنقسم حديثنا إلى جزأْين
أساسيْين In the considerations that follow in this paper/ this essay, we will divide our discussion into two parts
هذا البحث يركّز حصري اا على this essay focuses exclusively on
في البداية يجب أن ننوّه هنا إلى أن First, we should begin by pointing out that
The theme
مسألة issue
اشكالية dilema/ problematic
ظاهرة phenomenon
مشكلة problem
سؤال question
مأزق impasse
ورطة dilema
مغالطة fallacy (common misconception )
أطروحة thesis
قضية issue

  • assumption/ supposition إفتراض/ فَرْضِيّة
    موضوع – subject/ theme
    جدل – controversy
    قصة story
    موضع نقاش talking point
    محط اهتمام focus of attention
    السؤال الملح the pressing question/issue
    أسئلة مهملة neglected issues
    قضية نبيلة a noble cause
    انطباع مبهم vague impression
    الأسباب والدوافع والاتجاهات the causes, motivations and trends
    المداخل والمخارج the ins and outs
    الإيجابيات والسلبيات the positives and negatives
    Introduction
    السؤال الذي يطرح نفسه The question that presents itself is ..
    يتطرق إلى to go into a subject )أريد أن أتطرق إلى موضوع _( يخوض في موضوع to foray into/ enter the subject of هذا السؤال قد تم تناوله بإسهاب This is a question that has been dealt with at length ينطلق من المربع الأول to start from square one يسلط الضوء على to throw light on من أجل تسليط الضوء على In order to throw light on إمعن النظر في to give careful consideration to جري اا على التقليد الشائع، سوف أبدأ بتحديد الموضوع في قيد البحث In line with convention, I will begin by setting out the subject under consideration لقد احتدم الجدل حول… منذ وقت طويل The debate surrounding has long raged .
    بات يطفو على السطح في الآونة الأخيرة has surfaced in recent times (i.e become topical )
    بدأ يطفو على السطح مجددا has begun to resurface
    إنه موضوع يستقطب الآراء it is a subject that polarizes peoples’ opinions
    الموضوع يصعب استيعاب أبعاده كليا it is difficult to fully grasp the dimensions of this subject
    لقد أصبحت هذه القضية تشغل أذهان الكثيرين this issue has started to preoccupy many
    أطلقت هذه المسألة بوجهها القبيح مجددا this issue has reared its ugly head yet again
    التساؤل الذي يتردد على شفاه الجميع the question on everybody’s lips (is )
    لو إلقينا النظر على if we consider/ take a look at …
    المؤلف ينطلق من الفرضية أن the author proceeds from the hypothesis/presumption that
    الكاتبة تنطلق من الافتراض أن the writer proceeds from the assumption that
    يحاول هذا المقال تسليط الضوء على this article seeks to shed light on
    انطلاقا من/مما proceeding from (i.e. proceeding from the notion that )
    لا حاجة للبيان أن there is no need to explain that …
    دون الغوص في التفاصيل without going into detail
    دون الخوض في التفاصيل without going into detail
    علينا بحث هذا الموضوع طَرْداا وعكْ ا سا to explore a subject from all angles
    …. لن أطيل بتفصيلها جميع I will not detail all of ..
    المذكور أعلاه mentioned above
    Discussing your topic
    يدور حول revolves around/ surrounds/ has to do with
    يتعلق ب has to do with
    يتمحور حول revolves around/ has to do with the pivotal issue of
    لا علاقة له ب – has nothing to do with
    يربط ب is connected with
    ترتبط بعلاقة وثيقة ب is closely connected with
    يعود إلى is due to
    يتجلى في is manifested/ apparent in
    ذات مغزى تاريخي is of historical significance
    لا إجحاف اذا قلنا إن it is not unfair to claim that
    من إنصاف القول إن it is fair to say that
    لا مبالغة في القول إن it wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that
    أكتفي بالقول ان suffice to say that
    لا يفوتنا أن نذكر we cannot fail but mention (that )
    يجب ألا يغيب عن بالنا أن we must not forget that
    الجدير بالذكر أن it’s worth mentioning, it is noteworthy that
    واللافت أن it is interesting th
    بعض الكلمات الي تساعدكم في مجال التعليم:
    Acquire يكتسب
    Virtues فضائل
    Discipline انضباط
    Collective effort جهد جماعي
    Self-control ضبط النفس
    Truthfulness الصدق
    Kindness اللطف
    Duty المسئوليه
    Good quality القيم الجيده
    Punctuality التقيد بالمواعيد

🔺 التكنولوجيا في التعليم
1 . Technology makes teaching easy !
Aren’t you tired of giving theoretical explanations your students cannot understand? You simply cannot discover a way of presenting tough concepts that makes the concept clear for each and every student in the class. Technology has that power! Thanks to audio-visual presentations, your students will understand exactly how the knowledge is applied in practice. You can use projectors and computer presentations to deliver any type of lesson or instruction and improve the level of comprehension within the class .
2 . Technology helps you track students’ progress !
You are no longer limited to a plain-old diary and notes about every student. That would only get you confused. Today, you can rely on platforms and tools that enable you to keep track of the individual achievements of your students. MyStudentsProgress and
theTeacherCloud Progress Tracker are great online tools that enable you to do that, but your school can also develop personalized software that would serve that purpose .
3 . Educational technology is good to the environment !
Can you imagine the amount of paper and number of trees that would be saved if every school decided to introduce digital textbooks? Of course, that goal is far from realistic at this point, but you can make a change when you start from your own class. For example, you can instruct your students to take online tests and submit their papers and homework through email. You can also encourage them to use eReaders to go through the literature you assign .
4 . Thanks to technology, students enjoy learning !
Students are addicted to Facebook, Pinterest, Instagram, Digg, and other websites from a very early age. The internet can distract them from the learning process, but you can also use their inclination to spend time online for a good purpose: Making learning enjoyable. Use touch-screen technology and online presentations to make the classes more interactive. You can also rely on technology when you want your students to take part in discussions. Set up a private Facebook group for your class and inspire constructive conversations !
5 . Technology makes distance learning more accessible than ever !
Without the wonders of the internet, people wouldn’t be able to get access to any type of information at the very moment they think of it. Today, distance learning is one of the most trending learning methods. Virtual lessons are slowly taking the place of traditional lectures. Students can organize their time in a way that works for them, and they can easily gain the knowledge they are interested in. For example, let’s say one of your students shows great interest in Astronomy, but the traditional curriculum does nothing to feed that hunger for knowledge. You can recommend him/her to take beginner’s course at Coursera, Udemy, or any other online service that offers high-quality virtual lectures .
6 . Students and teachers can access information at any time !
This is possibly the most obvious benefit of technology. When old-school teachers were students, they had to spend hours in the library looking for the information they needed. Today, technology integration makes everything different and simpler. Students can easily access newspapers, scientific articles, studies, and any other type of content online. They can write better, deeper academic papers because they can support their arguments with more evidence. When you give a lecture the students don’t understand, they can find simpler instructions and information with a single Google search .
7 . Technology makes collaboration more effective !
Think about the way collaboration looks like in a traditional classroom setting. You organize groups, assign the projects, and suddenly the class becomes a complete mess. Some
students express their opinions too loudly and firmly, while others don’t get an opportunity to be heard. Online tools and apps offer a unique setting for students to engage in a group project. They can do the work from home; the team is connected through the Internet and everyone is inspired by the focused environment.
التعلم التعاوني Cooperative Learning:
What is cooperative learning? Cooperative learning can be characterized in the following Chinese proverb: Tell me, and I’ll forget Show me, and I’ll remember Involve me, I’ll learn. Cooperative learning can be defined as a strategy for the classroom that is used to increase motivation and retention, to help students develop a positive image of self and others, to provide vehicles for critical thinking and problem solving, and to encourage collaborative social skills .
Humans are not born instinctively knowing how to cooperate with others. In the classroom, students will not automatically start cooperating as soon as you put them into small groups. Cooperative group skills must be taught – just like skills in math, reading, writing. Because most students have not been taught to work effectively with others, they can not do it. Traditional forms of education do not encourage cooperative activity; students work independently and compete for recognition with their peers .The physical and spatial arrangement of the classroom affects cooperative work .
If students in EFL classes are to cooperate, activities must be structured so that students can cooperate and talk to each other. If they want to have a conversation with someone, they can’t talk facing back-to-back or front-to-back. They need to talk face-to-face. 3. Peer support and group dynamics are the keys to successful group work. The members in the group are the ones who determine how well the group will function. • Will the group share responsibilities or will some group members monopolize the time? • Will they respect each other? • Will low-performing group members be included ?
These are all problems that must be solved with the cooperation and support of peers in the group and through well-structured teacher guidance. There must be a careful balance between pressure for learning cooperative skills and support for doing so. The earlier students can be taught these skills, the easier it will be for them to learn how to cooperate (Johnson and Johnson). Strategies for group dynamics Christison and Bassano (1987) have identified 6 strategies for helping teachers understand group dynamics and promote peer support in the second/foreign-language classroom .
Strategy 1: Restructuring. Restructuring activities usually require students to interact physically as a group. Students are given specific instructions for carrying out the task. There is minimal participation by the teacher. These activities help students adjust to future small-group, cooperative experiences by breaking down student expectations for the traditional teacher-controlled classroom. Strategy 2 : One-Centered. These activities put one student in the ‘spotlight’ for a few minutes. Activities are structured so that each student is given individual attention for a limited period of time .
For aggressive students, this “spotlight focus” reaffirms their importance to the group. They are less apt to “steal show” from he other group members when their position has been reaffirmed. For shy students, these successful, one-centered experiences increase the likelihood of contributions in the follow-up discussions and in additional activities later on.
Strategy 3: Unified Group. Unified-group activities promote cooperation in the group. Students begin to think about group goals instead of individual goals. Praise and positive reinforcement are given to promote group success .
These activities require the participation of each group member. No members may “bow out”. If someone chooses not to participate, the group can not be successful. Strategy 45: Small group. Small-group activities are more loosely structured than pair activities. They require patience, motivation, and good listening habits. The teacher acts only as a facilitator, so the responsibility for success lies with the group itself. These activities help students develop techniques for fair group interaction. Strategy 5: Large Group. Large-group activities are similar to small group activities in their objectives and structure .
The only difference is the inclusion of a larger number of students requires more skills among group members in fair group interaction. Strategy 4: Dyad. These activities give students the opportunity to work one-to-one with others in the class. Through these activities, students become better acquainted with each other and begin to feel more comfortable sharing personal ideas and views. Almost any activity can be structured . for pair work. Steps in teaching cooperative skills There are four steps that teachers must follow in teaching cooperative skills. 1 .
Students need to understand why it is they are doing things differently and how it will help them reach their goals. • Explain why they are doing cooperative work • Do brainstorm session on the possible value of a cooperative group work • Place posters around the room to remind learners of the benefits of cooperative group work. 2. Students must be aware of the necessary skills for successful group work in order to know what they are supposed to do. The teacher should demonstrate and model the skill to further clarify the points to the students. Concentrate on one skill at a time. 3. Students must practice the skill .
The major responsibilities teachers have in cooperative learning are to design and set up practice situations. 4. Students need to process the skills they have practiced. Processing means that students need to become aware of what exactly it is they have practiced and to
evaluate how successful they have been in the practice of the skills. Levels of cooperative skills In cooperative learning, setting up practice sessions is the chief responsibility of the teacher. According to Johnson and Johnson (1975), there are 4 levels of cooperative skills that teachers can focus on. These skills can be categorized in the following way .
1 . Forming. Forming skills are directed towards organizing the group and establishing behavioral norms. Groups who have mastered the skills of forming can move into their groups quickly and quietly, use quiet voices, stay with their groups for the duration of activity, encourage participation within the group, use group members’ names. Teachers who claim that cooperative group work is too noisy or takes too much time are working with students who have not been allowed to master the skill of forming. 2. Functioning. Functioning skills are directed to completing tasks and maintaining good relationships within a group .
Groups must understand, f. e. , what the time limits are and how the activity should be carried out within their groups, step by step. Activities that focus on the skill of functioning give learners a chance to ask for help, paraphrase previous comments, clarify, explain, and express support. 3. Formulating. The skill of formulating is directed towards helping learners to develop a deeper understanding of the material being studied and to develop better reasoning strategies. Activities that focus on the skill of formulating help learners develop the following strategies: • Summarizing out loud .
• Adding important information to the summary • Pointing out information that may not have been summarized properly • Relating material from a previous activity to the one being focused on 4. Fermenting. The highest-level skill for cooperative groups is fermenting. This skill involves helping learners explore more thoroughly the material the material they have been exposed to. When students can begin to challenge each other’s ideas, to explore different ways of looking at the material and reconceptualize these ideas, they are using the skills of fermenting. Benefits from using cooperative technique.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
انتهى ,,,,
جميع ما ذكر نقل من مجموعة اختبار aptis وقناة خبرات 2 مع بعض
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كل الشكر والتقدير لمن تعاون و ساهم في نشر الفائدة ..
دعواتي للجميع بالتوفيق ….
لا تنسوني من دعوة في ظهر الغيب ,,, Snow white


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